Valvular heart disease (including rheumatic heart disease):

Diseases Of The Heart Cardiovascular System

Heart disease is a generally utilized term that covers various diseases of the heart and the veins. Any problem that influences the heart. Now and then the expression "heart disease" is utilized barely and inaccurately as an equivalent for coronary artery disease. Heart disease is inseparable from cardiac disease yet not with cardiovascular disease which is any disease of the heart, artery or blood vessels. These diseases can occur due to an individual’s irresponsibility or through natural causes. Medical services provider search for coronary heart disease hazard by checking a few components, including circulatory strain, cholesterol, glucose, family ancestry, and way of life factors, for example, smoking, exorbitant liquor use, greasy eating routine, absence of activity, being overweight and stress!

Types of heart diseases

What causes it?

Heart disease creates when there is: harm to all or part of the heart ,an issue with the blood vessels prompting or from the heart or a low stockpile of oxygen and supplements to the heart

At times, there is a hereditary reason. Nonetheless, some way of life components and ailments can likewise expand the danger. These include:

  • hypertension
  • elevated cholesterol
  • smoking
  • a high admission of liquor
  • overweight and weight
  • diabetes
  • a family background of heart disease
  • dietary decisions
  • age
  • a background marked by toxemia during pregnancy
  • low movement levels
  • high pressure and nervousness levels

Types of cardiac diseases

Cardiac disorders are classified into following types:

Coronary artery disease

It creates when the courses that supply blood to the heart become stopped up with plaque. this is also called atherosclerosis.

Congenital heart disorder

An individual with this type of heart deformity is most commonly born with a heart issue. Dysfunction of valves is most common in it


Arrhythmia alludes to an unpredictable heartbeat. It happens when the electrical motivations that organize the heartbeat don't work appropriately.

Myocardial Infraction

Otherwise called heart attack, myocardial localized necrosis includes an interference of the blood stream to the heart. This can harm or obliterate piece of the heart muscle.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

This condition normally creates when a hereditary issue influences the heart muscle.

Valvular heart disease (including rheumatic heart disease): 

The heart has four chambers. The two upper chambers are called the left and right atrium, and the two lower chambers are called the left and right ventricles. The four valves at the exit of each chamber maintain the one-way continuous flow of blood through the heart to the lungs and the rest of the body.

Rheumatic heart disease

Rheumatic heart disease is a condition in which the heart valves have been permanently damaged by rheumatic fever. The heart valve damage may start shortly after untreated or under-treated streptococcal infection such as strep throat or scarlet fever. An immune response causes an inflammatory condition in the body which can result in ongoing valve damage.


There are several causes of valvular heart disease, including congenital conditions (being born with it), infections, degenerative conditions (wearing out with age), and conditions linked to other types of heart disease. The rheumatic disease can happen after an infection from the bacteria that causes strep throat is not treated with antibiotics. The infection can cause scarring of the heart valve. 

  • Endocarditis is an infection of the inner lining of the heart caused by a severe infection in the blood. The infection can settle on the heart valves and damage the leaflets. Intravenous drug use can also lead to endocarditis and cause heart valve disease.
  • Congenital heart valve disease is malformations of the heart valves, such as missing one of its leaflets. The most commonly affected valve with a congenital defect is a bicuspid aortic valve, which has only two leaflets rather than three.


  • Autoimmune disease, such as lupus.
  • Marfan syndrome, a disease of connective tissue that can affect heart valves.
  • Exposure to high-dose radiation, which may lead to calcium deposits on the valve.
  • The aging process, which can cause calcium deposits to develop on the heart valves, making them stiff or thickened and less efficient with age.


Some people with heart valve disease might not have symptoms for many years. When signs and symptoms occur, they might include:

  • Whooshing sound (heart murmur) when a doctor is listening to the heart with a stethoscope
  • Chest pain
  • Abdominal swelling (more common with advanced tricuspid regurgitation)
  • Fatigue
  • Shortness of breath, particularly when active or lying down
  • Swelling of your ankles and feet
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting
  • Irregular heartbeat


Your doctor may think you have heart valve disease if your heart sounds heard through a stethoscope are abnormal. This is usually the first step in diagnosing heart valve disease. A characteristic heart murmur (abnormal sounds in the heart due to turbulent blood flow across the valve) can often mean valve regurgitation or stenosis. To further define the type of valve disease and extent of the valve damage, doctors may use any of the following tests:

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG): A test that records the electrical activity of the heart, shows abnormal rhythms (arrhythmias), and can sometimes detect heart muscle damage.
  • Echocardiogram (echo): This noninvasive test uses sound waves to evaluate the heart's chambers and valves. The echo sound waves create an image on a monitor as an ultrasound transducer is passed over the heart. This is the best test to evaluate heart valve function.
  • Transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE): This test involves passing a small ultrasound transducer down into the esophagus. The sound waves create an image of the valves and chambers of the heart on a computer monitor without the ribs or lungs getting in the way.
  • Chest X-ray: This test uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film. An X-ray can show enlargement in any area of the heart.
  • Cardiac catheterization: This test involves the insertion of a tiny, hollow tube (catheter) through a large artery in the leg or arm leading to the heart to provide images of the heart and blood vessels. This procedure is helpful in determining the type and extent of certain valve disorders.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): This test uses a combination of large magnets, radio frequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body.

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