Schedule of ratings—cardiovascular system

Schedule of ratings—cardiovascular system

Diseases of the Heart

Diseases Of The Heart Cardiovascular System

Heart disease is a generally utilized term that covers various diseases of the heart and the veins. Any problem that influences the heart. Now and then the expression "heart disease" is utilized barely and inaccurately as an equivalent for coronary artery disease. Heart disease is inseparable from cardiac disease yet not with cardiovascular disease which is any disease of the heart, artery or blood vessels. These diseases can occur due to an individual’s irresponsibility or through natural causes. Medical services provider search for coronary heart disease hazard by checking a few components, including circulatory strain, cholesterol, glucose, family ancestry, and way of life factors, for example, smoking, exorbitant liquor use, greasy eating routine, absence of activity, being overweight and stress!

Types of heart diseases

What causes it?

Heart disease creates when there is: harm to all or part of the heart ,an issue with the blood vessels prompting or from the heart or a low stockpile of oxygen and supplements to the heart

At times, there is a hereditary reason. Nonetheless, some way of life components and ailments can likewise expand the danger. These include:

  • hypertension
  • elevated cholesterol
  • smoking
  • a high admission of liquor
  • overweight and weight
  • diabetes
  • a family background of heart disease
  • dietary decisions
  • age
  • a background marked by toxemia during pregnancy
  • low movement levels
  • high pressure and nervousness levels

Types of cardiac diseases

Cardiac disorders are classified into following types:

Coronary artery disease

It creates when the courses that supply blood to the heart become stopped up with plaque. this is also called atherosclerosis.

Congenital heart disorder

An individual with this type of heart deformity is most commonly born with a heart issue. Dysfunction of valves is most common in it


Arrhythmia alludes to an unpredictable heartbeat. It happens when the electrical motivations that organize the heartbeat don't work appropriately.

Myocardial Infraction

Otherwise called heart attack, myocardial localized necrosis includes an interference of the blood stream to the heart. This can harm or obliterate piece of the heart muscle.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

This condition normally creates when a hereditary issue influences the heart muscle.

Valvular heart disease (including rheumatic heart disease): 

The heart has four chambers. The two upper chambers are called the left and right atrium, and the two lower chambers are called the left and right ventricles. The four valves at the exit of each chamber maintain the one-way continuous flow of blood through the heart to the lungs and the rest of the body.

Rheumatic heart disease

Rheumatic heart disease is a condition in which the heart valves have been permanently damaged by rheumatic fever. The heart valve damage may start shortly after untreated or under-treated streptococcal infection such as strep throat or scarlet fever. An immune response causes an inflammatory condition in the body which can result in ongoing valve damage.


There are several causes of valvular heart disease, including congenital conditions (being born with it), infections, degenerative conditions (wearing out with age), and conditions linked to other types of heart disease. The rheumatic disease can happen after an infection from the bacteria that causes strep throat is not treated with antibiotics. The infection can cause scarring of the heart valve. 

  • Endocarditis is an infection of the inner lining of the heart caused by a severe infection in the blood. The infection can settle on the heart valves and damage the leaflets. Intravenous drug use can also lead to endocarditis and cause heart valve disease.
  • Congenital heart valve disease is malformations of the heart valves, such as missing one of its leaflets. The most commonly affected valve with a congenital defect is a bicuspid aortic valve, which has only two leaflets rather than three.


  • Autoimmune disease, such as lupus.
  • Marfan syndrome, a disease of connective tissue that can affect heart valves.
  • Exposure to high-dose radiation, which may lead to calcium deposits on the valve.
  • The aging process, which can cause calcium deposits to develop on the heart valves, making them stiff or thickened and less efficient with age.


Some people with heart valve disease might not have symptoms for many years. When signs and symptoms occur, they might include:

  • Whooshing sound (heart murmur) when a doctor is listening to the heart with a stethoscope
  • Chest pain
  • Abdominal swelling (more common with advanced tricuspid regurgitation)
  • Fatigue
  • Shortness of breath, particularly when active or lying down
  • Swelling of your ankles and feet
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting
  • Irregular heartbeat


Your doctor may think you have heart valve disease if your heart sounds heard through a stethoscope are abnormal. This is usually the first step in diagnosing heart valve disease. A characteristic heart murmur (abnormal sounds in the heart due to turbulent blood flow across the valve) can often mean valve regurgitation or stenosis. To further define the type of valve disease and extent of the valve damage, doctors may use any of the following tests:

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG): A test that records the electrical activity of the heart, shows abnormal rhythms (arrhythmias), and can sometimes detect heart muscle damage.
  • Echocardiogram (echo): This noninvasive test uses sound waves to evaluate the heart's chambers and valves. The echo sound waves create an image on a monitor as an ultrasound transducer is passed over the heart. This is the best test to evaluate heart valve function.
  • Transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE): This test involves passing a small ultrasound transducer down into the esophagus. The sound waves create an image of the valves and chambers of the heart on a computer monitor without the ribs or lungs getting in the way.
  • Chest X-ray: This test uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film. An X-ray can show enlargement in any area of the heart.
  • Cardiac catheterization: This test involves the insertion of a tiny, hollow tube (catheter) through a large artery in the leg or arm leading to the heart to provide images of the heart and blood vessels. This procedure is helpful in determining the type and extent of certain valve disorders.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): This test uses a combination of large magnets, radio frequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body.

Endocarditis is aggravation of your heart's internal lining, called the endocardium. It's normally brought about by bacteria. At the point when the aggravation is brought about by contamination, the condition is called infective endocarditis. Endocarditis is remarkable in individuals with healthy hearts.

Symptoms of Endocarditis

The indications of endocarditis aren't generally extreme, and they may grow gradually over the long haul. In the beginning phases of endocarditis, the manifestations are like numerous different ailments. This is the reason numerous cases go undiscovered.

Normal side effects ofendocarditis include:

  • Heart mumble, which is a strange heart sound of fierce blood move through the heart
  • Paleness of skin
  • Fever or chills
  • Night sweats
  • Muscle or joint torment
  • Queasiness or diminished craving
  • A full inclination in the upper left piece of your midsection
  • Inadvertent weight reduction
  • Swollen feet, legs, or mid-region
  • Bad cough or windedness

More uncommon manifestations ofendocarditis include:

  • Blood in your pee
  • Weight reduction
  • An amplified spleen, which might be delicate to contact
  • Changes in the skin may likewise happen, including:
  • Delicate red or purple spots underneath the skin of fingers or toes

What causes endocarditis?

The primary driver of endocarditis is an excess of bacteria. Albeit these bacteria typically live within or outside surfaces of your body, you may bring them inside to your circulatory system by eating or drinking. Bacteria could likewise enter through cuts in your skin or oral cavity. Your resistant framework regularly wards off germs before they cause an issue, yet this cycle falls flat in certain individuals.

Eating and drinking aren't the lone ways that germs can enter your body. They can likewise get into your circulation system through:

    • Brushing your teeth
    • Having helpless oral cleanliness or gum sickness
    • Having a dental strategy that cuts your gums
    • Getting an explicitly sent infection
    • Utilizing a polluted needle
    • Through an inhabiting urinary catheter or intravenous catheter


    If you notice symptoms of endocarditis or your doctor thinks you might have it, they may suggest some tests. They’ll also likely listen to your heart with a stethoscope to see if you have a new or changed heart murmur. If they need more information before making a diagnosis, they may order one or more of the following tests:

    • Blood tests: These will look for bacteria in your bloodstream or show other things related to endocarditis, such as anemia, which means you don’t have enough red blood cells.
    • An echocardiogram or an electrocardiogram: These are tests that show how your heart is working. An echocardiogram uses an ultrasound device to produce images of your heart. An electrocardiogram uses sensors to measure the timing and length of your heartbeat.
    • An X-ray: This will show if endocarditis has affected your heart or lungs.
    • A CT scan or MRI: These tests use pictures to show your doctor if the infection has spread to another area of your body like your brain or chest.

    Pericarditis is an aggravation of the pericardium. Pericarditis is normally intense – it grows unexpectedly and may last as long as a while. The condition for the most part clears up following 3 months, however once in a while assaults can go back and forth for quite a long time. At the point when you have pericarditis, the layer around your heart is red and swollen, similar to the skin around a cut that gets kindled. Once in a while there is additional liquid in the space between the pericardial layers, which is called pericardial emission. Pericarditis can influence anybody, yet it is generally basic in individuals matured 16 to 65.

    Symptoms of Pericarditis

    Chest torment is the most well-known side effect of pericarditis. It ordinarily feels sharp or cutting. Be that as it may, a few people have dull, pain-filled or pressure-like chest torment.

    • The agony normally happens behind the breastbone or in the left half of your chest.
    • It might spread to one side shoulder and neck.
    • It frequently deteriorates when you hack, rests or take a full breath.
    • Sitting up and inclining forward causes you to feel good.

    Different signs and indications of pericarditis may include:

    • Stomach or leg growing
    • Serious cough
    • Exhaustion or general sensation of shortcoming or being wiped out
    • Poor quality fever
    • Beating or hustling heartbeat (heart palpitations)
    • Windedness when resting

    The particular indications you have rely upon the kind of pericarditis you have. Pericarditis is assembled into various classes, as per the example of side effects and how long indications last.

    The reason for pericarditis is regularly difficult to decide. Some of the time, specialists can't discover a reason (idiopathic pericarditis).

    What causes Pericarditis?

    Pericarditis causes can include:

    • Cardiovascular failure or heart medical procedure, which may trigger pericarditis or deferred pericarditis (Dressler's disorder, likewise called post myocardial dead tissue condition or postcardiac injury condition)
    • Contamination
    • Fundamental fiery problems, including lupus and rheumatoid joint pain
    • Injury, for example, injury to your heart or chest because of an engine vehicle or other mishap
    • Other wellbeing issues


    Pericarditis is an inflammation of the pericardium, the thin, two-layered, fluid-filled sac that covers the outer surface of your heart. Pericarditis usually develops suddenly and may last from weeks up to several months. The condition usually clears up after three months, but sometimes attacks can come and go for years. Sometimes there is extra fluid in the space between the pericardial layers, which is called pericardial effusion.

    Types of pericarditis

    • Acute pericarditis: Inflammation of the pericardium that develops suddenly along with the sudden onset of symptoms.
    • Chronic pericarditis: Inflammation of the pericardium that lasts for three months or longer after the initial acute attack.
    • Constrictive pericarditis: A severe form of pericarditis in which the inflamed layers of the pericardium stiffen, develop scar tissue, thicken, and stick together. Constrictive pericarditis interferes with your heart’s normal function. This usually happens after multiple episodes of acute pericarditis over time.
    • Infectious pericarditis: develops as the result of a viral, bacterial, fungal or parasitic infection.
    • Idiopathic pericarditis: Pericarditis that doesn’t have a known cause.
    • Traumatic pericarditis: develops as the result of an injury to the chest, such as after a car accident.
    • Uremic pericarditis: develops as the result of kidney failure.
    • Malignant pericarditis: develops as a result of cancer growing in your body


    The cause of pericarditis is often unknown, though viral infections are a common reason. Pericarditis may occur after a respiratory or digestive system infection. Chronic and recurring pericarditis may be caused by autoimmune disorders such as lupus, scleroderma, and rheumatoid arthritis. These are disorders in which the body’s immune system makes antibodies that mistakenly attack the body’s tissues or cells.

    Other possible causes of pericarditis are:

    • Heart attack and heart surgery
    • Kidney failure, HIV/AIDS, cancer, tuberculosis and other health problems
    • Injuries from accidents or radiation therapy
    • Certain medicines, such as phenytoin (an anti-seizure medicine), warfarin and heparin (both blood-thinning medicines), and procainamide (a medicine to treat irregular heartbeats)


    About 85 to 90 percent of people with pericarditis have chest pain as a symptom. This can feel like a heart attack, with a sharp or stabbing pain in your chest that comes on suddenly. The pain can be in the middle or left side of your chest, behind the breastbone. Pain may radiate to your shoulders, neck, arms, or jaw.

    Other symptoms include:

    • fever
    • weakness or fatigue
    • trouble breathing, especially when lying down
    • heart palpitations
    • dry cough
    • swelling in your feet, legs, and ankles

    Your symptoms may worsen when you:

    • lie flat
    • take deep breaths
    • cough
    • swallow

    If the cause of your pericarditis is bacterial, you may have a fever, chills, and an above-normal white cell count. If the cause is viral, you may have flu-like or stomach symptoms. Your symptoms may vary, depending on the type of pericarditis you have. 


    To diagnose pericarditis, a health care provider will usually examine you and ask questions about your symptoms and medical history. Blood tests are usually done to check for signs of a heart attack, inflammation, and infection. Other tests used to diagnose pericarditis may include:

    Electrocardiogram (ECG): An electrocardiogram is a quick and painless test that records the electrical signals in the heart. Sticky patches (electrodes) with wires attached connect to a monitor. They record the electrical signals that make the heart beat. A computer records the information and displays it as waves on a monitor or on paper.

    Chest X-ray: A chest X-ray can show changes in the size and shape of the heart. It can help detect an enlarged heart.

    Echocardiogram: Sound waves (ultrasound) create images of the moving heart. An echocardiogram can show how well the heart is pumping blood and if there is fluid buildup in the tissue surrounding the heart.

    Cardiac computerized tomography (CT) scan: Cardiac CT scans use X-rays to create images of the heart and chest. The test can be used to look for heart thickening that may be a sign of constrictive pericarditis.

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): Cardiac MRI uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create cross-sectional images of the heart. A cardiac MRI scan can reveal thickening, inflammation, or other changes in the thin tissue surrounding the heart.

    Pericardial adhesions

    Pericardial adhesions are fibrous bands that form between the pericardium, the sac that surrounds the heart, and other structures in the chest. These adhesions can limit the movement of the heart, which can cause symptoms and complications.


    Following are the causes of pericardial adhesions:

    • Inflammation or injury to the pericardium, which can occur due to infections, trauma, surgery, or radiation therapy.
    • Idiopathic causes, which means the cause is unknown.
    • Chronic diseases such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis.
    • Blood clots or other foreign materials that become lodged in the pericardium.


    You might experience these symptoms if you have pericardial adhesions:

    • Chest pain or discomfort, which may worsen with deep breathing or lying down.
    • Shortness of breath, especially during physical activity or when lying down.
    • Heart palpitations or irregular heartbeat.
    • Fatigue or weakness.
    • Swelling in the legs or abdomen.


    The tests conducted to make the diagnosis include:

    • Physical examination to assess for signs of heart and lung problems, such as abnormal heart sounds or fluid in the lungs.
    • Echocardiogram uses sound waves to create images of the heart and can detect the presence of adhesions.
    • CT scan or MRI of the chest can provide detailed images of the heart and surrounding structures.
    • Pericardiocentesis is a procedure in which a needle is inserted into the pericardium to remove fluid and evaluate for signs of infection or inflammation.

    What is Syphilitic heart disease?

    Syphilitic aortitis or the syphilitic heart disease is aggravation of the aorta related with the tertiary phase of syphilis disease. SA starts as aggravation of the furthest layer of the vein, including the veins that supply the actual aorta with blood, the vasa vasorum. As SA deteriorates, the vasa vasorum go through hyperplastic thickening of their dividers along these lines confining blood stream and causing ischemia of the external 66% of the aortic divider. Starved for oxygen and supplements, versatile strands become inconsistent and smooth muscle cells kick the bucket. In the event that the illness advances, syphilitic aortitis prompts an aortic aneurysm. Generally speaking, tertiary syphilis is an uncommon reason for aortic aneurysms.


    The contamination frequently has no indications until the patient builds up an aneurysm in light of the aortic dilatation. The infection is regularly found after a normal test of the heart and aorta. In spite of the fact that is not difficult to be neglected, different manifestations of tertiary syphilis may show up, for example, indications of neurosyphilis (cerebral pain, solid neck, walk irregularity, dementia and so forth) Moreover, in uncommon cases, chest torment and windedness may show up because of the harm of the aorta and heart valve.


    The favored treatment at all stages is penicillin, an anti-toxin drug that can slaughter the living bacteria that causes syphilis. In case you're susceptible to penicillin, your primary care physician may propose another anti-microbial or suggest penicillin desensitization

    Syphilitic heart disease: 

    Syphilitic heart disease, also known as cardiovascular syphilis, is a complication of the bacterial infection syphilis that affects the heart. 


    It is caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum, which is typically transmitted through sexual contact.


    The symptoms of syphilitic heart disease can vary, but may include: 

    • chest pain
    • shortness of breath
    • aortic aneurysms.

     In advanced stages, the disease can lead to heart failure and other serious complications.


    Diagnosis of syphilitic heart disease is typically made through the following tests:

    • Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) test 
    • Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test, to detect antibodies to the syphilis bacteria
    • serological test
    • PCR test 
    • FTA-ABS test 


    Note: Evaluate syphilitic aortic aneurysms under DC 7110 (aortic aneurysm).

    What Do You Mean By Arteriosclerosis?

    Atherosclerosis is a solidifying and narrowing of your arteries. It can put blood stream in danger as your arteries become impeded.

    You may hear it called arteriosclerosis or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is considered the main reason for heart attacks and many other cardiovascular diseases. You can forestall and treat this cycle.

    Atherosclerosis Signs And Symptoms

    You probably won't have manifestations until your corridor is almost shut or until you have a heart assault or stroke. Signs can likewise rely upon which corridor is limited or obstructed.

    Side effects identified with your coronary arteries include:

    • Arrhythmia, an irregular heartbeat
    • Agony or a pressing feeling in your chest area, including your chest, arms, neck, or jaw. This is known as angina.
    • Windedness

    Manifestations identified with the arteries that convey blood to your mind include:

    • Deadness or shortcoming in your arms or legs
    • A tough time talking or understanding somebody who's talking
    • Hanging facial muscles
    • Loss of motion
    • Serious cerebral pain
    • Inconvenience finding in one or the two eyes
    • Manifestations identified with the arteries of your arms, legs, and pelvis include:
    • Leg torment when strolling
    • Numbness

    Side effects identified with the arteries that convey blood to your kidneys include:

    • Hypertension
    • Kidney failure

    What Causes Atherosclerosis?

    Arteries are veins that convey blood from your heart all through your body. It keeps within your arteries fit as a fiddle and smooth, which keeps blood streaming.

    Atherosclerosis starts with harm to the endothelium. Regular causes include:

    • Elevated cholesterol
    • Hypertension
    • Aggravation, as from joint inflammation or lupus
    • Stoutness or diabetes
    • Smoking
    • That harm makes plaque develop along the dividers of your arteries.

    Arteriosclerotic heart disease (Coronary artery disease): 

    Atherosclerosis is a hardening and narrowing of your arteries caused by cholesterol plaques lining the artery over time. It can put blood flow at risk as your arteries become blocked. You might hear it called arteriosclerosis or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It’s the usual cause of heart attacks, strokes, and peripheral vascular disease -- what together are called cardiovascular disease.


    Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood from your heart throughout your body. They're lined by a thin layer of cells called the endothelium. It keeps the inside of your arteries in shape and smooth, which keeps blood flowing. Atherosclerosis begins with damage to the endothelium. Common causes include:

    • High cholesterol
    • High blood pressure
    • Inflammation, like from arthritis or lupus
    • Obesity or diabetes
    • Smoking


    Even as artery walls gradually thicken and stiffen, there usually are no arteriosclerosis symptoms. Even as the condition worsens into atherosclerosis, mild cases may still show no symptoms. That’s why regular checkups are important. As arteriosclerosis progresses, clogged arteries can trigger a heart attack or stroke, with the following symptoms:

    • Chest pain or pressure (angina)
    • Sudden arm or leg weakness or numbness
    • Slurred speech or difficulty speaking
    • Brief loss of vision in one eye
    • Drooping facial muscles
    • Pain when walking
    • High blood pressure
    • Kidney failure


    To determine whether you have atherosclerosis, your healthcare provider will start with:

    • Family medical history
    • Personal medical history
    • Physical exam, listening with a stethoscope for weak or absent pulse or an abnormal sound in your arteries called a bruit
    • Blood tests can measure the amount of fat, cholesterol, sugar, and protein in your blood.


    Note: If nonservice-connected arteriosclerotic heart disease is superimposed on service-connected valvular or other non-arteriosclerotic heart disease, request a medical opinion as to which condition is causing the current signs and symptoms

    A heart attack or myocardial infraction happens when the progression of blood to the heart is obstructed. The blockage is regularly a development of fat, cholesterol and different substances, which structure a plaque in the arteries that feed the heart (coronary arteries).

    A plaque can burst and shape a coagulation that squares blood stream. The intruded-on blood stream can harm or demolish some portion of the heart muscle.

    A heart attack, likewise, called a myocardial dead tissue, can be lethal, however treatment has improved drastically throughout the long term. It's pivotal to call 911 or crisis clinical assistance on the off chance that you figure you may be having a heart attack.

    Symptoms of Myocardial Infraction

    Regular heart attack signs and manifestations include:

    • Pressing factor, snugness, torment, or a crushing or throbbing sensation in your chest or arms that may spread to your neck, jaw or back
    • Sickness, acid reflux, heartburn or stomach torment
    • Windedness
    • Cold perspiration
    • Weariness
    • Dazedness or abrupt wooziness
    • Heart attack side effects shift

    Not all individuals who have heart attacks have similar manifestations or have similar seriousness of side effects. A few people have mellow torment; others have more extreme agony. A few people have no indications. For other people, the principal sign might be abrupt heart failure. Notwithstanding, the more signs and manifestations you have, the more prominent the possibility you're having a heart attack.

    When Should You See A Specialist?

    Act right away. A few people stand by too long on the grounds that they don't perceive the significant signs and side effects. Make these strides:

    Call for an emergency clinical assistance. Quickly call your neighborhood crisis number or a nearby hospital. In the event that you don't approach crisis clinical administrations, have somebody drive you to the closest clinic.

    Drive yourself just if there are no different alternatives. Since your condition can deteriorate, driving yourself puts you and others in danger.


    Take dynamite, whenever endorsed to you by a specialist. Accept it as trained while anticipating crisis help.

    Take headache medicine, whenever suggested. Taking prescribed medicine during a heart attack could lessen heart harm by assisting with shielding your blood from thickening.

    Myocardial infarction: 

    A myocardial infarction (commonly called a heart attack) is an extremely dangerous condition that happens because of a lack of blood flow to your heart muscle. The lack of blood flow can occur because of many different factors but is usually related to a blockage in one or more of your heart’s arteries. Without blood flow, the affected heart muscle will begin to die. If blood flow isn’t restored quickly, a heart attack can cause permanent heart damage and death.


    Your heart is the main organ in your cardiovascular system, which also includes different types of blood vessels. Some of the most important vessels are the arteries. They take oxygen-rich blood to your body and all of your organs. The coronary arteries take oxygen-rich blood specifically to your heart muscle. When these arteries become blocked or narrowed due to a buildup of plaque, the blood flow to your heart can decrease significantly or stop completely. This can cause a heart attack.


    The following are the most common symptoms of a heart attack. But each person may have slightly different symptoms.

    • Severe pressure, fullness, squeezing, pain, or discomfort in the center of the chest that lasts for more than a few minutes
    • Pain or discomfort that spreads to the shoulders, neck, arms, or jaw
    • Chest pain that gets worse
    • Chest pain that doesn't get better with rest or by taking nitroglycerin
    • Chest pain that happens along with any of these symptoms:
    • Sweating, cool, clammy skin, or paleness
    • Shortness of breath
    • Nausea or vomiting
    • Dizziness or fainting
    • Unexplained weakness or fatigue
    • Rapid or irregular pulse

    Although chest pain is the key warning sign of a heart attack, it may be confused with other conditions. These include indigestion, pleurisy, pneumonia, tenderness of the cartilage that attaches the front of the ribs to the breastbone, and heartburn. 


    Ideally, a healthcare provider should screen you during regular checkups for risk factors that can lead to a heart attack. A heart attack is often diagnosed in an emergency setting. If you've had or are having a heart attack, care providers will take immediate steps to treat your condition. If you're able to answer questions, you may be asked about your symptoms and medical history. Tests to diagnose a heart attack include:

    Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG): This first test done to diagnose a heart attack records electrical signals as they travel through the heart. Sticky patches (electrodes) are attached to the chest and sometimes the arms and legs. Signals are recorded as waves displayed on a monitor or printed on paper. An ECG can show if you are having or have had a heart attack.

    Blood tests: Certain heart proteins slowly leak into the blood after heart damage from a heart attack. Blood tests can be done to check for these proteins (cardiac markers).

    Chest X-ray: A chest X-ray shows the condition and size of the heart and lungs.

    Echocardiogram: Sound waves (ultrasound) create images of the moving heart. This test can show how blood moves through the heart and heart valves. An echocardiogram can help identify whether an area of your heart has been damaged.

    Coronary catheterization (angiogram): A long, thin tube (catheter) is inserted into an artery, usually in the leg, and guided to the heart. Dye flows through the catheter to help the arteries show up more clearly on images made during the test.

    Cardiac CT or MRI: These tests create images of the heart and chest. Cardiac CT scans use X-rays. Cardiac MRI uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create images of your heart. For both tests, you usually lie on a table that slides inside a long tubelike machine. Each test can be used to diagnose heart problems. They can help show the severity of heart damage.

    Hypertensive heart disease alludes to heart conditions brought about by hypertension. The heart working under expanded tension causes some unique heart issues. Hypertensive heart disease incorporates heart disappointment, thickening of the heart muscle, coronary vein disease, and different conditions. Hypertensive heart disease can cause genuine health issues. It's the main source of death from hypertension.

    Sorts Of Hypertensive Heart Disease

    All in all, the heart issues related with hypertension identify with the heart's arteries and muscles. The sorts of hypertensive heart disease include:

    Narrowing Of The Arteries

    Coronary arteries transport blood to your heart muscle. At the point when hypertension makes the veins become slender, blood stream to the heart can slow or stop. This condition is known as coronary heart disease (CHD), additionally called coronary corridor disease.

    CHD makes it hard for your heart to capacity and supply the remainder of your organs with blood. It can put you in danger for heart attack from a blood coagulation that stalls out in one of the limited arteries and slices off blood stream to your heart.

    Thickening And Extension Of The Heart

    Hypertension makes it hard for your heart to siphon blood. Like different muscles in your body, customary difficult work causes your heart muscles to thicken and develop. This changes the manner in which the heart capacities. These progressions for the most part occur in the principle siphoning office of the heart, the left ventricle, or LVH.

    CHD can cause LVH and the other way around. At the point when you have CHD, your heart should work more earnestly. On the off chance that LVH extends your heart, it can pack the coronary arteries.


    Side effects shift contingent upon the seriousness of the condition and movement of the disease. You may encounter no manifestations, or your indications may include:

    • chest torment (angina)
    • snugness or pressing factor in the chest
    • shortage of breath
    • weariness
    • genuine annoyance, back, arms, or shoulders
    • constant hack
    • loss of hunger

    You need emergency care services if your heart is pulsating quickly or sporadically. Look for emergency care quickly or call 911 on the off chance that you black out or have serious agony in your chest.

    Hypertensive heart disease: 

    Hypertensive heart disease refers to heart conditions caused by high blood pressure. The heart working under increased pressure causes some different heart disorders. Hypertensive heart disease includes heart failure, thickening of the heart muscle, coronary artery disease, and other conditions. Hypertensive heart disease can cause serious health problems. It’s the leading cause of death from high blood pressure.


    High blood pressure that isn’t managed for years causes hypertensive heart disease.


    Because there are no symptoms of high blood pressure, many people don’t know they have it. Symptoms of hypertensive cardiovascular disease often show up after your heart has already been damaged.

    Symptoms of hypertensive heart disease include:

    • Chest pain.
    • Shortness of breath.
    • Palpitations.
    • Dizziness.
    • Fainting.
    • Stroke.
    • Sudden cardiac death.


    Your doctor will look for certain signs of hypertensive heart disease, including:

    • High blood pressure
    • Enlarged heart and irregular heartbeat
    • Fluid in the lungs or lower extremities
    • Unusual heart sounds

    Your doctor may perform tests to determine if you have hypertensive heart disease, including an electrocardiogram,  echocardiogram, cardiac stress test, chest X-ray, and coronary angiogram.

    Situated at the base your throat, the butterfly-molded thyroid organ discharges chemicals that influence each organ in your body—particularly your heart. Thyroid chemical impacts the power and speed of your heartbeat, your pulse, and your cholesterol level. Therefore, a failing thyroid organ can cause issues that take on the appearance of heart disease or exacerbate existing heart.

    Hypothyroidism: The heart association

    Inadequate thyroid chemical eases back your heart rate. Since it likewise makes the supply routes less flexible, pulse ascends to flow blood around the body. Raised cholesterol levels, which add to limited, solidified courses, are another conceivable result of low thyroid level.

    Another noncardiac indication—muscle throbs—may likewise be pertinent. Muscle throbs can be a manifestation of hypothyroidism just as a symptom of cholesterol-bringing down statin drugs, a condition known as statin-related myalgia. Truth be told, research proposes that hypothyroidism is more normal in individuals who can't endure statins

    Hyperthyroidism: Excess thyroid chemical

    The contrary issue, hyperthyroidism, or an excess of thyroid chemical, is undeniably more uncommon, influencing under 1% of the populace. In any case, it, as well, can hurt the heart.


    The exemplary side effects incorporate restlessness, heat prejudice, abundance perspiring, weight reduction, outrageous craving, and free entrails. Abundance thyroid chemical likewise makes the heartbeat more earnestly and quicker and may trigger irregular heart rhythms.

    Risk Factors

    The accompanying elements influence your chances of having a thyroid issue:

    Family ancestry. Individuals whose first-degree family members (guardians or kin) have an underactive or overactive thyroid face a higher danger of a comparable issue.

    Sexual orientation. Ladies are five to multiple times bound to have thyroid issues than men.

    Age. The commonness of hypothyroidism ascends with age, particularly after age 60.

    Health history. Thyroid issues are more probable among individuals with an individual or family background of specific conditions, including diabetes, rheumatoid joint pain, untimely silver hair, radiation therapies to the head and neck, and vitiligo.

    Hyperthyroid Heart Disease: 

    Hyperthyroidism occurs when your thyroid gland makes too much thyroid hormone or your dose of thyroid medicine is too high. The excess hormone "speeds up" virtually every system in your body. The symptoms often include nervousness, palpitations caused by a fast heart rate, feeling hot when others are comfortable, trouble sleeping, and weight loss despite being hungry all the time.


    Hyperthyroid heart disease can be caused by:

    • Overproduction of thyroid hormones
    • Graves' disease
    • Toxic adenoma
    • Thyroiditis
    • Tumors or goiters in the thyroid gland


    The signs and symptoms include:

    • Rapid or irregular heartbeat
    • Chest pain
    • Shortness of breath
    • Lightheadedness or fainting
    • Swelling in the legs, ankles, or feet


    Following tests are conducted to diagnose hyperthyroid heart disease: 

    • Physical exam and medical history
    • Blood tests to check thyroid hormone levels
    • Electrocardiogram (ECG) to check heart function
    • Echocardiogram to visualize heart structure and function
    • Thyroid scan to identify any abnormalities in the gland

    Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), additionally called paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, is characterized as an unusually quick heartbeat. It's a wide term that incorporates numerous types of heart musicality issues (heart arrhythmias) that begin over the ventricles (supraventricular) in the atrial hub. A normal heart rate is 60 to 100 beats per minute. tachycardia is the condition where the heartbeat exceeds abnormally up to more than 100 beats per second. This occurs when the electrical impulses that coordinate your heartbeats don't work properly.


    Signs and manifestations of supraventricular tachycardia may include:

    • A rippling in your chest
    • Fast heartbeat (palpitations)
    • Windedness
    • wooziness
    • Perspiring
    • A beating sensation in the neck
    • Blacking out (syncope) or close swooning

    In babies and small kids, signs and indications might be hard to recognize. Perspiring, helpless taking care of, fair skin and newborn children with a heartbeat rate more prominent than 200 thumps for every moment may have supraventricular tachycardia.

    Supraventricular arrhythmias:

    Supraventricular arrhythmias refer to a group of heart rhythm disorders that originate above the ventricles in the atria of the heart. These types of arrhythmias are characterized by rapid and irregular heartbeats, which can cause symptoms ranging from mild palpitations to more serious issues like shortness of breath, chest pain, and fainting. 


    The causes of supraventricular arrhythmias include:

    • Abnormalities in the heart's electrical system
    • High levels of stress or anxiety
    • Heart disease or heart attack
    • Use of stimulant medications or drugs
    • Alcohol or caffeine consumption
    • Chronic medical conditions, such as lung disease or hyperthyroidism


    Signs and manifestations of supraventricular arrhythmias may include:

    • Rapid or irregular heartbeat
    • Lightheadedness or fainting
    • Chest pain or discomfort
    • Shortness of breath
    • Dizziness or weakness


    The diagnosis of supraventricular arrhythmias typically involves a combination of a physical exam, medical history, and various tests to evaluate heart function and identify any underlying causes.

    • Physical exam and medical history
    • Electrocardiogram (ECG) to measure the heart's electrical activity
    • Holter monitor to record heart activity over a 24-hour period
    • Echocardiogram to visualize heart structure and function
    • Blood tests to check for underlying conditions

    Ventricular arrhythmias (sustained): 

    Ventricular arrhythmias (sustained) refer to a type of heart rhythm disorder characterized by rapid and irregular beats originating from the ventricles of the heart. A sustained ventricular arrhythmia is defined as an abnormal heart rhythm that lasts for more than 30 seconds. This type of arrhythmia can be dangerous and potentially life-threatening as it can reduce the heart's ability to pump blood effectively, leading to decreased blood flow to the body and the possibility of cardiac arrest. 


    Ventricular tachycardia causes include:

    • Cardiomyopathy.
    • Cardiovascular disease (especially when it changes the shape of your heart).
    • Congenital heart conditions (heart problems you’re born with).
    • Electrolyte imbalances
    • Heart attack
    • Heart failure
    • Heart inflammation
    • Heart surgery
    • Heart valve diseases
    • Lack of oxygen
    • Medications

    Ventricular fibrillation causes include:

    • Blunt impacts the chest (especially from small, fast-moving objects like a baseball).
    • Cardiomyopathy
    • Congenital heart conditions
    • Electrocution
    • Heart attack
    • Heart surgery
    • Medications
    • Ventricular tachycardia


    The symptoms of ventricular arrhythmia depend on the type of arrhythmia. Some have no symptoms (especially non-sustained and benign arrhythmias).

    Ventricular tachycardia usually has the following symptoms:

    • Chest pain (angina)
    • Dizziness, feeling lightheaded or fainting
    • Shortness of breath or trouble breathing
    • Heart palpitations

    Ventricular fibrillation typically causes a person to collapse or pass out. Sometimes, there are no warning signs before this takes place. If symptoms happen, they tend to appear just minutes before a person passes out. Symptoms often include:

    • Chest pain (angina)
    • Dizziness, feeling lightheaded and fainting
    • Nausea
    • Heart palpitations or an irregular or racing pulse
    • Shortness of breath or trouble breathing


    Diagnosis typically involves: 

    • physical exam
    • electrocardiogram (ECG)
    • possibly other tests to evaluate heart function and identify underlying causes

    Note: A rating of 100 percent shall be assigned from the date of hospital admission for initial evaluation and medical therapy for a sustained ventricular arrhythmia or for ventricular aneurysmectomy. Six months following discharge, the appropriate disability rating shall be determined by mandatory VA examination. Any change in evaluation based upon that or any subsequent examination shall be subject to the provisions of §3.105(e) of this chapter.

    Atrioventricular block:

    Atrioventricular (AV) block is a cardiac electrical disorder defined as impaired (delayed or absent) conduction from the atria to the ventricles. The severity of the conduction abnormality is described in degrees: first-degree; second-degree, type I (Wenckebach or Mobitz I) or type II (Mobitz II); and third-degree (complete) AV block. This classification scheme should be applied only during sinus rhythm and not during rapid atrial arrhythmias or to premature atrial beats.


    Heart block can be first, second, or third-degree, depending on the extent of electrical signal impairment.

    First-degree heart block: The electrical impulse still reaches the ventricles, but moves more slowly than normal through the AV node. The impulses are delayed. This is the mildest type of heart block.

    Second-degree heart block is classified into two categories: Type I and Type II. In second-degree heart block, the impulses are intermittently blocked.

    Type I, also called Mobitz Type I or Wenckebach’s AV block: This is a less serious form of second-degree heart block. The electrical signal gets slower and slower until your heart actually skips a beat.

    Type II, also called Mobitz Type II: While most of the electrical signals reach the ventricles every so often, some do not and your heartbeat becomes irregular and slower than normal.

    Third-degree heart block: The electrical signal from the atria to the ventricles is completely blocked. To make up for this, the ventricle usually starts to beat on its own acting as a substitute pacemaker but the heartbeat is slower and often irregular and not reliable. Third-degree block seriously affects the heart’s ability to pump blood out to your body.


    The most common causes of AV block are:

    • Idiopathic fibrosis and sclerosis of the conduction system (about 50% of patients)
    • Ischemic heart disease (40%)
    • The remaining cases of AV block are caused by
    • Medications (eg, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, digoxin, amiodarone)
    • Increased vagal tone
    • Valvulopathy
    • Congenital heart, genetic, or other disorders
    • Atrioventricular block may be partial or complete. First-degree and second-degree blocks are partial. Third-degree blocks are complete.


    Symptoms depend on the type of heart block you have:

    • First-degree heart block may have no bothersome symptoms.

    Second-degree heart block might cause:

    • Dizziness
    • Fainting
    • The feeling that your heart skips beats
    • Chest pain
    • Trouble breathing or shortness of breath
    • Nausea
    • Fatigue

    Third-degree heart block, which can be fatal, might cause:

    • Intense tiredness
    • Irregular heartbeats
    • Dizziness
    • Fainting
    • Cardiac arrest


    To diagnose your condition, your health care provider will consider:

    • Your overall health and medical history
    • Any family history of heart block or heart disease
    • Medicines you are taking
    • Lifestyle choices, such as the use of cigarettes or illegal drugs
    • Your description of the symptoms
    • A physical exam
    • An electrocardiogram (ECG) records your heart’s electrical impulses
    • Testing with a Holter or event monitor to track your heart’s rhythm for a period of time.  
    • An electrophysiology study is an outpatient procedure in which a thin, flexible wire is threaded from your groin or arm to your heart to test the heart's wiring system. 

    Note: Unusual cases of arrhythmia such as atrioventricular block associated with a supraventricular arrhythmia or pathological bradycardia should be submitted to the Director, Compensation and Pension Service. Simple delayed P-R conduction time, in the absence of other evidence of cardiac disease, is not a disability.

    To treat heart related diseases, surgeons tend to perform heart valve repair or replacement surgeries. Heart valve disease includes at any rate one of the four heart valves not working appropriately. Heart valves keep blood streaming the right way through your heart. The four valves are the mitral valve, tricuspid valve, pneumonic valve and aortic valve. Every valve has folds — called handouts for the mitral and tricuspid valves and cusps for the aortic and pneumonic valves. During each heartbeat they open and close repeatedly. Valves that don't open or close appropriately upset blood course through your heart to your body.

    In heart valve surgery, your specialist repairs or replaces the influenced heart valves. Numerous careful methodologies can be utilized to repair or replace heart valves, including open-heart surgery or insignificantly obtrusive heart surgery. Your treatment relies upon a few elements, including your age, your wellbeing, the state of the influenced heart valve and the seriousness of your condition.

    What Are The Risks Of Heart Valve Surgery?

    Conceivable Heart Valve Surgery Hazards Include:

    • Excessive Bleeding
    • Heart attack
    • Infection
    • Valve brokenness influencing replaced valves
    • Unpredictable heart cadence (arrhythmia)
    • Stroke
    • Death

    Heart Valve Replacement

    In the event that your heart valve can't be repaired, and a catheter-based strategy isn't achievable, the valve may should be replaced. To replace a heart valve, a professional medical care provider eliminates the heart valve and replaces it with a mechanical valve, or a valve produced using cow, pig or human heart tissue (natural tissue valve).

    Organic valves frequently in the end should be replaced, as they degenerate after some time. On the off chance that you have a mechanical valve, you'll need to take blood-diminishing prescriptions for the remainder of your life to forestall blood clusters. Specialists will talk about with you the dangers and advantages of each kind of valve.

    Description Percentage

    For indefinite period following date of hospital admission for valve replacement



    Description Percentage

    Chronic congestive heart failure, or; workload of 3 METs or less results in dyspnea, fatigue, angina, dizziness, or syncope, or; left ventricular dysfunction with an ejection fraction of less than 30 percent

    Description Percentage

    More than one episode of acute congestive heart failure in the past year, or; workload of greater than 3 METs but not greater than 5 METs results in dyspnea, fatigue, angina, dizziness, or syncope, or; left ventricular dysfunction with an ejection fraction of 30 to 50 percent

    Description Percentage

    Workload of greater than 5 METs but not greater than 7 METs results in dyspnea, fatigue, angina, dizziness, or syncope, or; evidence of cardiac hypertrophy or dilatation on electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, or X-ray

    Description Percentage

    Workload of greater than 7 METs but not greater than 10 METs results in dyspnea, fatigue, angina, dizziness, or syncope, or; continuous medication required


    Heart valve replacement (prosthesis): 

    Heart valve replacement, also known as valve prosthesis, is a surgical procedure to replace a damaged or diseased heart valve with an artificial one. This procedure is typically recommended for people with heart valve disorders that impair the normal flow of blood through the heart and can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, dizziness, and fainting. A heart valve replacement can help to restore normal heart function, improve symptoms, and reduce the risk of further complications.


    You might need heart valve replacement due to the following causes:

    • Congenital heart valve defects
    • Degenerative diseases such as calcific aortic stenosis
    • Rheumatic heart disease
    • Endocarditis is an infection of the heart's inner lining
    • Damage to the heart valve from a heart attack


    The signs and symptoms include:

    • Shortness of breath, especially during physical activity
    • Chest pain or discomfort
    • Fatigue or weakness
    • Rapid or irregular heartbeat
    • Swelling in the legs, ankles, or feet


    Diagnosing a heart valve disorder typically involves a thorough physical exam, medical history review, and various tests to evaluate heart function and identify any underlying causes. The tests used may include:

    • Electrocardiogram (ECG) to measure the heart's electrical activity
    • Echocardiogram to visualize heart structure and function
    • Chest X-ray to visualize the heart and lungs
    • Cardiac catheterization to assess blood flow through the heart valves

    Note: A rating of 100 percent shall be assigned as of the date of hospital admission for valve replacement. Six months following discharge, the appropriate disability rating shall be determined by mandatory VA examination. Any change in evaluation based upon that or any subsequent examination shall be subject to the provisions of §3.105(e) of this chapter.

    Coronary bypass surgery: 

    Coronary artery bypass grafting is a surgery that restores blood flow to areas of your heart that aren’t getting enough blood. This surgery can improve your heart function and how you feel, especially when you’ve just had a heart attack or there’s an increased risk for you to have one in the near future.

    Why is it needed?

    Coronary artery bypass surgery is done to restore blood flow around a blocked heart artery. The surgery may be done as an emergency treatment for a heart attack if other immediate treatments aren't working.

    Your healthcare provider might recommend coronary artery bypass surgery if you have:

    • A blockage in the left main heart artery. This artery supplies a lot of blood to the heart muscle.
    • Severe narrowing of the main heart artery.
    • Severe chest pain caused by narrowing of several heart arteries. The narrowing reduces blood flow to the heart even during light exercise or at rest.
    • More than one diseased heart artery and your lower left heart chamber doesn't work well.
    • A blocked heart artery that can't be treated with coronary angioplasty. This less-invasive treatment uses a balloon on the tip of a thin tube, called a catheter, to widen the artery. A small coil called a stent is typically used to keep the artery open.
    • An angioplasty with or without a stent that hasn't worked. For example, an artery narrowed again after stenting.


    Your doctor uses coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) to treat a blockage or narrowing of one or more of the coronary arteries to restore the blood supply to your heart muscle.

    Symptoms of coronary artery disease may include:

    • Chest pain
    • Fatigue (severe tiredness)
    • Palpitations
    • Abnormal heart rhythms
    • Shortness of breath
    • Swelling in the hands and feet
    • Indigestion

    Unfortunately, you may not have any symptoms in early coronary artery disease, yet the disease will continue to progress until there’s enough artery blockage to cause symptoms and problems. If the blood supply to your heart muscle continues to decrease as a result of increasing blockage of a coronary artery, you may have a heart attack. If the blood flow can’t be restored to the particular area of the heart muscle affected, the tissue dies.

    There may be other reasons for your doctor to recommend CABG surgery.


    Before you can undergo CABG, you will need to undergo several tests to see if it's safe for you to have this surgery and whether or not you need the surgery in the first place.

    The potential tests include, but aren’t limited to, the following:

    • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG).
    • Echocardiogram.
    • Exercise stress test.
    • Nuclear cardiac stress test.
    • Cardiac catheterization.
    • X-ray angiography or computed tomography (CT) scan angiography.
    • Coronary calcium scan.
    • Lab tests, such as a complete blood count, that analyze your cholesterol, blood sugar, and other factors. Other possible tests include urine tests that analyze how well your kidneys function.

    Implantable cardiac pacemakers:

    An implantable cardiac pacemaker is a small device that is surgically implanted under the skin of the chest to help regulate the heartbeat. It works by sending electrical impulses to the heart muscle to help it beat in a regular rhythm. This type of device is typically recommended for people with heart rhythm disorders, such as bradycardia, that slow the heartbeat and cause symptoms such as fatigue, dizziness, and fainting. The goal of an implantable cardiac pacemaker is to improve heart function, reduce symptoms, and prevent further complications.

    Why is it needed?

    The need for implantable cardiac pacemakers may arise because of the following:

    • Bradycardia, a slow heartbeat
    • Heart block, a condition where electrical signals between the heart's chambers are disrupted
    • Congenital heart defects
    • Cardiac arrest caused by a heart rhythm disorder
    • After a heart attack to prevent future rhythm problems


    The signs and symptoms include:

    • Fatigue or weakness
    • Dizziness or lightheadedness
    • Shortness of breath
    • Fainting or near-fainting episodes
    • Chest pain or discomfort


    The diagnosis procedure includes following tests:

    • Physical exam and medical history
    • Electrocardiogram (ECG) to measure the heart's electrical activity
    • Holter monitor to record heart activity over a 24-hour period
    • Echocardiogram to visualize heart structure and function
    • Tilt table test to evaluate symptoms such as lightheadedness or fainting

    Diagnosing a heart rhythm disorder typically involves a thorough physical exam, medical history review, and various tests to evaluate heart function and identify any underlying causes. The tests used may include an electrocardiogram, holter monitor, echocardiogram, and tilt table test, among others. Based on the diagnosis, an implantable cardiac pacemaker may be recommended to improve heart function and reduce symptoms.

    Note: Evaluate implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators (AICD’s) under DC 7011.

    A heart transplant is an operation wherein a diseased, bombing heart is supplanted with a better donor heart. Heart transplant is a treatment that is normally held for individuals whose condition hasn't improved enough with meds or different medical procedures.

    While a heart transplant is a significant operation, your possibility of endurance is acceptable with suitable subsequent consideration.

    Why Is This Cardiac Transplant Done?

    Heart transplants are performed when different medicines for heart issues haven't worked, prompting heart disappointment. In grown-ups, heart disappointment can be brought about by:

    • A debilitating of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy)
    • Coronary corridor disease
    • Heart valve disease
    • A heart issue you're brought into the world with (intrinsic heart deformity)
    • Hazardous repeating irregular heart rhythms (ventricular arrhythmias) not constrained by different medicines
    • Disappointment of a past heart transplant

    In kids, heart disappointment is regularly brought about by either an intrinsic heart deformity or cardiomyopathy. Another organ transplant might be performed simultaneously as a heart transplant (multiorgan transplant) in individuals with specific conditions at select clinical focuses.

    Not Everyone Requires A Heart Transplant:

    A heart transplant isn't appropriate for everybody, in any case. You probably won't be a decent contender for a heart transplant on the off chance that you:

    • Are at a higher age that would meddle with the capacity to recuperate from transplant a medical procedure
    • Have another ailment that could abbreviate your life, paying little mind to accepting a donor heart, for example, a genuine kidney, liver or lung disease
    • Have a functioning contamination
    • Have a new close to home clinical history of malignancy
    • Are reluctant or incapable to make way of life changes important to keep your donor heart solid, for example, not drinking liquor or not smoking

    Gadgets For People Who Cannot Go Through Heart Transplant:

    For certain individuals who can't have a heart transplant, another alternative might be a ventricular help gadget (VAD). A ventricular help gadget is a mechanical siphon embedded in your chest that assists siphon with blooding from the lower offices of your heart (ventricles) to the remainder of your body. VADs are usually utilized as impermanent medicines for individuals sitting tight for heart transplants. These gadgets are progressively being utilized as long-haul medicines for individuals who have heart disappointment yet are not qualified for heart transplants.

    Description Percentage

    For an indefinite period from date of hospital admission for cardiac transplantation



    Description Percentage

    Chronic congestive heart failure, or; workload of 3 METs or less results in dyspnea, fatigue, angina, dizziness, or syncope, or; left ventricular dysfunction with an ejection fraction of less than 30 percent

    Description Percentage

    More than one episode of acute congestive heart failure in the past year, or; workload of greater than 3 METs but not greater than 5 METs results in dyspnea, fatigue, angina, dizziness, or syncope, or; left ventricular dysfunction with an ejection fraction of 30 to 50 percent

    Description Percentage





    Cardiac Transplantation: 

    A heart transplant is a medical procedure that involves replacing a failing heart with a healthy heart from a donor. The process is seen as a last resort for treating heart conditions and is generally recommended by doctors when other treatments haven’t been fruitful. These treatments are surgeries, and they use medications to treat heart problems.

    Heart failure is a condition where the heart is not working as efficiently as it usually should. Your entire body needs blood to perform all the necessary functions. When the blood flow becomes insufficient, due to the heart being unable to pump blood adequately, then disruption occurs; this makes your heart weak. Heart failure can affect any side of your heart, or it can affect both sides of your heart at the same time.

    Why it's done?

    Heart transplants are performed when other treatments for heart problems haven't worked, leading to heart failure. In adults, heart failure can be caused by:

    • A weakening of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy)
    • Coronary artery disease
    • Heart valve disease
    • A heart problem you're born with (congenital heart defect)
    • Dangerous recurring abnormal heart rhythms (ventricular arrhythmias) not controlled by other treatments
    • Failure of a previous heart transplant
    • In children, heart failure is most often caused by either a congenital heart defect or cardiomyopathy.
    • Another organ transplant may be performed at the same time as a heart transplant (multiorgan transplant) in people with certain conditions at select medical centers.

    A heart transplant is not right for everyone, however. You might not be a good candidate for a heart transplant if you:

    • Are at an advanced age that would interfere with the ability to recover from transplant surgery
    • Have another medical condition that could shorten your life, regardless of receiving a donor heart, such as a serious kidney, liver or lung disease
    • Have an active infection
    • Have a recent personal medical history of cancer
    • Are unwilling or unable to make lifestyle changes necessary to keep your donor heart healthy, such as not using recreational drugs, not smoking and limiting alcohol use


    Your healthcare provider checks your overall health by running several different tests. Some, but not all, of the possible tests are listed below.

    Lab testing includes blood and urine tests that examine your:

    • Blood composition: Your provider checks the levels of red blood cells, platelets and other components in your blood. They also analyze your blood chemistry to look for signs of other conditions that might affect your ability to have a heart transplant.
    • Immune system: Your provider uses the findings from an immune system analysis to predict how well your immune system can tolerate a donor organ.
    • Kidney function: A urinalysis shows how well your kidneys are working.
    • Use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs: Testing for alcohol, tobacco and drugs is an important part of your preparation. You must avoid alcohol, tobacco products (including vaping) and recreational drugs (including marijuana) for an extended time before your transplant.

    Imaging tests you may need include:

    • X-rays.
    • Computed tomography (CT) scans.
    • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
    • Echocardiogram.

    Diagnostic tests check the function of your heart, respiratory and circulatory systems. These may include:

    • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG).
    • Exercise stress testing.
    • Pulmonary (lung) function testing.
    • Heart catheterization.
    • Holter monitor.

    Testing for specific diseases is also possible, especially the following:

    • Tuberculosis.
    • HIV.
    • Hepatitis B.
    • Hepatitis C.
    • Toxoplasmosis.
    • Herpes simplex virus.
    • Varicella-zoster virus (the virus that causes chickenpox and shingles).

    Transplant recipients need to be up-to-date on vaccines before transplantation. An infectious disease specialist helps with this process.

    Psychological and neurological evaluation

    Part of the selection process includes psychological and neurological testing and evaluation. That’s because maintaining a healthy heart transplant is stressful and at times challenging. People who receive a transplant also face an increased risk of depression. Neurological tests check for issues that might cause you additional problems.

    Dental evaluation

    Your oral health, especially the condition of your teeth, can play a big role in your heart health. It’s common for oral infections from cavities to spread to your heart and cause damage there.

    Social and financial evaluation

    A heart transplant is a difficult, intensive process. People with the best chance of success also have a good support system around them, including family and friends. The transplant team will talk with you about your situation and learn what resources you might need to get through the process.

    Note: A rating of 100 percent shall be assigned as of the date of hospital admission for cardiac transplantation. One year following discharge, the appropriate disability rating shall be determined by mandatory VA examination. Any change in evaluation based upon that or any subsequent examination shall be subject to the provisions of §3.105(e) of this chapter.

    Cardiomyopathy is a disease that restricts the heart muscles from uninterrupted supply of blood. Cardiomyopathy can prompt heart failure. The principle kinds of cardiomyopathy incorporate dilated, hypertrophic and prohibitive cardiomyopathy. Treatment — which may incorporate drugs, surgically embedded gadgets or, in extreme cases, a heart relocate — relies upon which kind of cardiomyopathy you have and how genuine it is.

    Cardiomyopathy Side Effects

    There may be no signs or indications in the early phases of cardiomyopathy. However, as the condition advances, signs and indications generally appear, including:

    • Shortness of breath with effort or even very still
    • Growing of the legs, lower legs and feet
    • Swelling of the mid-region because of liquid development
    • Severe cough while resting
    • Exhaustion
    • Heartbeats that vibe rapid, beating or rippling
    • Chest distress or pressure
    • Wooziness, and swooning

    Signs and manifestations will in general deteriorate except if treated. In certain individuals, the condition deteriorates rapidly; in others, it probably won't deteriorate for quite a while.

    Treatment Of Cardiomyopathy

    The objectives of cardiomyopathy treatment are to deal with your signs and indications, keep your condition from declining, and lessen your danger of complexities. Treatment shifts by which sort of cardiomyopathy you have.

    • Medication

    Your primary care physician may endorse meds to improve your heart's siphoning capacity, improve blood stream, lower blood pressure, moderate your heart rate, eliminate abundance liquid from your body or keep blood clumps from framing.

    Make sure to talk about conceivable results, reaction, and all necessary details with your doctor prior to taking any of these medications.


    Kinds of surgery used to treat cardiomyopathy include:

    • Septal Myectomy

     In this surgery, the specialist eliminates some portion of the thickened heart muscle (septum) that isolates the two base heart chambers (ventricles). Eliminating some portion of the heart muscle improves blood course through the heart and lessens mitral valve disgorging.


    Cardiomyopathy is a progressive disease of the myocardium, or heart muscle. In most cases, the heart muscle weakens and is unable to pump blood to the rest of the body as well as it should.

    There are many different types of cardiomyopathy, caused by a range of factors, from coronary heart disease to certain drugs. Cardiomyopathy can lead to an irregular heartbeat, heart failure, or other complications.

    Cardiomyopathy types and complications

    Dilated cardiomyopathy

    • Most common form
    • Damaged heart muscles lead to an enlarged and floppy heart
    • Heart stretches as it tries to compensate for weakened pumping action
    • Often produces signs of congestive heart failure, such as breathlessness and fluid retention
    • Can lead to the formation of clots
    • Rarely, can occur after pregnancy, this is known as peripartum cardiomyopathy

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)

    • Second most common form; most often inherited
    • Causes heart wall to thicken, leaving less space for blood in the chambers and making the heart work harder to pump blood out
    • Can affect people of all ages

    Restrictive cardiomyopathy

    • Causes portions of the heart wall to become rigid and lose flexibility
    • Heart chambers are unable to fill with blood properly because of stiffness in the heart


    Healthcare professionals may categorize cardiomyopathy based on the general cause. These two categories are:

    • Ischemic cardiomyopathy, caused by heart attacks or coronary artery disease (CAD).
    • Non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, types unrelated to CAD.

    Sometimes, experts don't know the cause of cardiomyopathy (idiopathic). Some factors or conditions can increase your risk of cardiomyopathy, including:

    • Autoimmune diseases, such as connective tissue diseases.
    • Conditions that damage the heart, such as high cholesterol diseases, hemochromatosis or sarcoidosis.
    • Endocrine conditions, such as diabetes or thyroid disease.
    • Family history of heart failure, cardiomyopathy or sudden cardiac arrest.
    • Previous heart attacks.
    • Pregnancy.


    The symptoms of all types of cardiomyopathy tend to be similar. In all cases, the heart can’t adequately pump blood to the tissues and organs of the body. It can result in symptoms such as:

    • general weakness and fatigue
    • shortness of breath, particularly during exertion or exercise
    • lightheadedness or dizziness
    • chest pain
    • heart palpitations
    • fainting spells
    • high blood pressure
    • a bloated abdomen
    • coughing when lying down
    • edema, or swelling, of your feet, ankles, legs, or other body parts


    Your health care provider is likely to perform a physical examination and ask questions about your personal and family medical history. You'll also be asked when your symptoms occur — for example, whether exercise triggers your symptoms. If your provider thinks you have cardiomyopathy, several tests may be done to confirm the diagnosis, including:

    • Chest X-ray: An image of the heart will show whether it's enlarged.
    • Echocardiogram: This test uses sound waves to create images of the heart, which show its size and its motions as it beats. This test checks the heart valves and helps determine the cause of symptoms.
    • Electrocardiogram (ECG): In this noninvasive test, electrode patches are attached to the skin to measure electrical signals from the heart. An ECG can show disturbances in the electrical activity of the heart, which can detect irregular heart rhythms and areas of injury.
    • Treadmill stress test: Heart rhythm, blood pressure and breathing are monitored while walking on a treadmill. This test can evaluate symptoms, determine exercise capacity and whether exercise triggers irregular heart rhythms.
    • Cardiac catheterization: A thin tube (catheter) is inserted into the groin and threaded through blood vessels to the heart. Pressure within the chambers of the heart can be measured to see how forcefully blood pumps through the heart. Dye can be injected through the catheter into blood vessels to make them more visible on X-rays (coronary angiogram). Cardiac catheterization can reveal blockages in blood vessels.
    • This test might also involve removal of a small tissue sample (biopsy) from the heart for laboratory analysis.
    • Cardiac MRI: This test uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create images of the heart. A provider might order a cardiac MRI if the images from an echocardiogram aren't helpful in making a diagnosis.
    • Cardiac CT scan: This involves lying on a table inside a doughnut-shaped machine. An X-ray tube inside the machine rotates around the body and collects images of the heart and chest to assess heart size and function and the heart valves.
    • Blood tests: Several blood tests might be done, including those to check kidney, thyroid and liver function and to measure iron levels.One blood test can measure B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), a protein produced in the heart. A blood level of BNP might rise during heart failure, a common complication of cardiomyopathy.
    • Genetic testing or screening: Cardiomyopathy can be passed down through families (inherited). Ask your health care provider if genetic testing is right for you. Family screening or genetic testing might include first-degree relatives — parents, siblings and children


    Note 1: Evaluate cor pulmonale, which is a form of secondary heart disease, as part of the pulmonary condition that causes it.


    Note 2: One MET (metabolic equivalent) is the energy cost of standing quietly at rest and represents an oxygen uptake of 3.5 milliliters per kilogram of body weight per minute. When the level of METs at which dyspnea, fatigue, angina, dizziness, or syncope develops is required for evaluation, and a laboratory determination of METs by exercise testing cannot be done for medical reasons, an estimation by a medical examiner of the level of activity (expressed in METs and supported by specific examples, such as slow stair climbing or shoveling snow) that results in dyspnea, fatigue, angina, dizziness, or syncope may be used.

    Diseases of the Arteries and Veins

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