Acquired flatfoot deformity (AFD) is a reformist straightening of the curve of the foot that happens as the back tibial ligament wears out. It has numerous different names, for example, back tibial ligament brokenness, back tibial ligament deficiency, and dorsolateral peritalar subluxation. This issue may advance from beginning phases with pain and growing along the back tibial ligament to finish curve breakdown and arthritis all through the hindfoot (back of the foot) and lower leg.


Patients with AFD frequently experience pain, deformity, or potentially growing at the lower leg or hindfoot. At the point when the back tibial ligament doesn't work appropriately, various changes can happen to the foot and lower leg. In beginning phases, symptoms regularly incorporate pain and expanding along the back tibial ligament behind within the lower leg.

As the ligament fizzles over the long haul, deformity of the foot and lower leg may happen. This deformity can include:

  • reformist straightening of the curve
  • outward movement of the heel so it never again is adjusted under the rest of the leg
  • rotational deformity of the forefoot
  • fixing of the heel cord
  • arthritis development
  • deformity of the lower leg joint

At specific phases of this issue, pain may move from within to the outside of the lower leg as the heel moves outward and structures are squeezed outwardly of the lower leg.

Treatment Of Acquired Flatfoot

Treatment relies particularly on a patient's symptoms, objectives, seriousness of deformity, and the presence of arthritis. A few patients improve without surgery. Rest and immobilization, orthotics, supports, and active recuperation all might be proper.

With beginning phase illness that includes pain along the ligament, immobilization with a boot for a while can mitigate weight on the ligament and decrease the aggravation and pain. When these symptoms have settled, patients may progress to utilizing an arch help or orthotic that bolsters within the hindfoot. For patients with a more critical deformity, a bigger lower leg support might be essential. Non-careful medicines for further developed phases of AFD may moderate the movement of the problem and breaking point symptoms, yet they won't fix the deformity

In the event that surgery is required, various techniques might be thought of. The points of interest of the arranged surgery rely upon the phase of the problem and the patient's particular objectives.

Flatfoot, acquired

Adult acquired flatfoot is a very common condition that affects the feet and ankles of adult males and females. In people with adult acquired flatfoot, the arch of the foot falls or collapses. It can be a painful, sometimes debilitating condition. However, a painful flatfoot can usually be helped with braces or orthotics and other non-surgical treatments.

Adult acquired flatfoot is different from flatfoot in children. Children will usually outgrow flatfoot on their own, often without treatment. In adults, flat feet usually remain permanently flat. Treatment usually addresses the symptoms rather than a cure.

In adults the condition is called "acquired" flatfoot because it affects feet that at one point in time had a normal longitudinal arch. The deformity may worsen over time as one ages.

Types of flat feet

Flexible flat foot

Flexible flat foot is the most common type. The arches in your feet appear only when you lift them off the ground, and your soles touch the ground fully when you place your feet on the ground. This type starts in childhood and usually doesn’t cause pain.

Tight Achilles tendon

Your Achilles tendon connects your heel bone to your calf muscle. If it’s too tight, you might experience pain when walking and running. This condition causes the heel to lift prematurely when you’re walking or running.

Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction

This type of flat foot is acquired in adulthood when the tendon that connects your calf muscle to the inside of your ankle is injured, swollen, or torn. If your arch doesn’t receive the support it needs, you’ll have pain on the inside of your foot and ankle, as well as on the outside of the ankle.

Depending on the cause, you might have the condition in one or both feet.


There are myriad causes of acquired flatfoot, including posterior tibialis tendon (PTT) degeneration, trauma, neuroarthropathy, neuromuscular disease, and inflammatory arthritis. Of these, PTT degeneration is, by far, the most common


Patients with acquired flatfoot often experience pain, deformity, and/or swelling at the ankle or hindfoot. When the posterior tibial tendon does not work properly, a number of changes can occur to the foot and ankle. In early stages, symptoms often include pain and swelling along the posterior tibial tendon behind the inside of the ankle.

As the tendon fails over time, deformity of the foot and ankle may occur. This deformity can include:

  • progressive flattening of the arch
  • outward shifting of the heel so that it no longer is aligned underneath the rest of the leg
  • rotational deformity of the forefoot
  • tightening of the heel cord
  • development of arthritis
  • deformity of the ankle joint


At certain stages of this disorder, pain may shift from the inside to the outside of the ankle as the heel shifts outward and structures are pinched on the outside of the ankle.


While flat feet can usually be self-diagnosed, the underlying cause may require investigation by a foot specialist known as a podiatrist. This may involve a visual exam as well as imaging tests to evaluate the structure of the foot.

Visual Examination

A podiatrist can usually diagnose flat feet by looking at your feet while standing. Among some of the visual tests used:

The wet footprint test is performed by wetting the feet and standing on a smooth, level surface. The thicker the print between the heel and ball of the foot, the flatter the foot. By contrast, a high-arch foot would leave only a narrow print of the outer foot.

The shoe inspection test can provide evidence of faulty foot mechanics. If you have flat feet, there will be more wear on the inside of your sole, especially in the heel area. The shoe's upper will also tend to lean inward over the sole.

The "too many toes" test is performed as the healthcare provider stands behind you and counts the number of toes peeking out to the sides. While only the pinky toe would be seen in people with normal pronation, three or four may be seen in those who overpronate.

The tiptoe test is used to see if you have flexible or rigid flat feet. If a visible arch forms when you stand on your toes, you have flexible flat feet. If not, your healthcare provider would likely recommend treatment for a rigid flat foot.

Imaging Tests

If you are experiencing a lot of foot pain, your healthcare provider may order imaging tests to help pinpoint the underlying cause. Among the imaging tests used:

X-rays and computed tomography (CT) scans are ideal for diagnosing arthritis and evaluating irregularities in the angle and/or alignment of the foot bones.

Ultrasound can be used to produce detailed images of soft tissue damage, such as a ruptured tendon.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide detailed images of bone and soft tissue damage, ideal for people with rheumatoid arthritis, tendonitis, or an Achilles heel injury.

Bilateral foot weakening, now and then called drop foot, is an overall term for trouble lifting the forward portion of the foot. In the event that you have Bilateral foot weakening, the front of your foot may delay the ground when you walk. Bilateral foot weakening isn't a disease. Or maybe, it can be considered as an indication of a basic neurological, solid or anatomical issue.

Mostly bilateral foot weakening is transitory; however, it very well may be lasting. In the event that you have Bilateral foot weakening, you may have to wear a support on your lower leg and foot to stand firm on your foot in a typical situation.


Bilateral foot weakening makes it hard to lift the forward portion of your foot, so it may delay the floor when you walk. This can make you raise your thigh when you stroll, like climbing steps (steppage walk), to help your foot clear the floor. This strange stride may make you smack your foot down onto the floor with each progression. Now and again, the skin on the highest point of your foot and toes feels numb. Contingent upon the reason, Bilateral foot weakening can influence one or the two feet.

When To See A Specialist

On the off chance that your toes drag the floor when you walk, counsel your primary care physician.


Bilateral foot weakening is brought about by shortcoming or loss of motion of the muscles associated with lifting the forward portion of the foot. Reasons for Bilateral foot weakening may include:

  • Nerve injury
  • A nerve root injury
  • Muscle or nerve problems.
  • Cerebrum and spinal cord issues. Issues that influence the spinal rope or cerebrum

Weak Foot, bilateral

Foot drop also known as drop foot is not a disease, but rather a commonly encountered symptom of a neurological, anatomical, or muscular problem. Foot drop is inability to lift the forefoot due to the weakness of dorsiflexors of the foot. Ankle and foot dorsiflexors, namely the tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, and extensor hallucis longus, help clear the foot during the swing phase of walking and control plantar flexion of the foot on heel strike. Weakness in the ankle and foot dorsiflexors results in an equinovarus deformity. Sometimes referred to as steppage gait, which is a tendency of a person walking with an exaggerated flexion of the hip and knee to prevent the toes from catching on the ground during swing phase. Foot drop can therefore hinder walking and increase the risk of tripping and falling.


Foot drop is a symptom of an underlying problem. This condition can be caused by many medical conditions or diseases that affect the nerves or muscles, including:

  • Multiple sclerosis, Lou Gehrig’s disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS), spinal muscular atrophy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, muscular dystrophy, polio, or cerebral palsy
  • Stroke
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Diabetes
  • An injury to the common peroneal nerve, which is located in the lower leg and helps control feeling and movement in the leg


Foot drop makes it difficult to lift the front part of your foot, so it might drag on the floor when you walk. This can cause you to raise your thigh when you walk, as though climbing stairs (steppage gait), to help your foot clear the floor. This unusual gait might cause you to slap your foot down onto the floor with each step. In some cases, the skin on the top of your foot and toes feels numb.

Depending on the cause, foot drop can affect one or both feet.


Foot drop is usually diagnosed during a physical exam. Your doctor will watch you walk and check your leg muscles for weakness. He or she may also check for numbness on your shin and on the top of your foot and toes.

Imaging tests

Foot drop is sometimes caused by an overgrowth of bone in the spinal canal or by a tumor or cyst pressing on the nerve in the knee or spine. Imaging tests can help pinpoint these types of problems.

X-rays: Plain X-rays use a low level of radiation to visualize a soft tissue mass or a bone lesion that might be causing your symptoms.

Ultrasound: This technology, which uses sound waves to create images of internal structures, can check for cysts or tumors on the nerve or show swelling on the nerve from compression.

CT scan: This combines X-ray images taken from many different angles to form cross-sectional views of structures within the body.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): This test uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field to create detailed images. MRI is particularly useful in visualizing soft tissue lesions that may be compressing a nerve.

Nerve tests

Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies measure electrical activity in the muscles and nerves. These tests can be uncomfortable, but they're useful in determining the location of the damage along the affected nerve.

What Is Pes Cavus?

Pes cavus, otherwise called clawfoot or high arch, is a human foot type in which the bottom of the foot is unmistakably empty when bearing weight. A high arch is something contrary to a level foot and is fairly less common. Pes cavus is a foot deformity described by a high arch of the foot that doesn't smooth with weight bearing; the deformity can be situated in the forefoot, midfoot, hindfoot, or in a blend of every one of these destinations

What Are The Symptoms Of Pes Cavus?

  • Individuals with pes cavus here and there—however not generally—experience issues discovering shoes that fit and may need help from their perspective. Youngsters with high arches who experience issues strolling may wear exceptionally planned insoles, which are accessible in different sizes and can be made to order.
  • People with pes cavus every now and again report foot pain, which can prompt a huge constraint in capacity. The scope of objections announced in the writing incorporate metatarsalgia, pain under the principal metatarsal, plantar fasciitis, painful callosities, lower leg arthritis.
  • There are numerous different symptoms accepted to be identified with the cavus foot. These incorporate shoe-fitting problems, sidelong lower leg instability, lower appendage stress fractures, knee pain, iliotibial band rubbing syndrome, back pain and tripping.
  • Foot pain in individuals with pes cavus may result from abnormal plantar pressing factor stacking in light of the fact that, fundamentally, the cavoid foot is viewed as being unbending and non-stun retentive and having diminished ground contact region. There have recently been reports of a relationship between over the top plantar pressing factor and foot pathology in individuals with pes cavus.

Claw foot (pes cavus), acquired 

Claw foot is so named because of the abnormal appearance of the affected foot. A patient with this condition has a deformity in which the toe joint nearest to the ankle bends upward and the other toes bend downward in a fixed contracture. A claw foot is not necessarily harmful and may not require treatment, but it can cause pain, result in development of other troubling disorders, or be a sign of a more serious underlying condition.

Types of Pes cavus

Three main types of pes cavus are regularly described in the literature: pes cavovarus, pes calcaneocavus, and ‘pure’ pes cavus. The three types of pes cavus can be distinguished by their etiology, clinical signs and radiological appearance.

  • Pes cavovarus, the most common type of pes cavus, is seen primarily in neuromuscular disorders such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and, in cases of unknown aetiology, is conventionally termed ‘idiopathic’. Pes cavovarus presents with the calcaneus in varus, the first metatarsal plantarflexed, and a claw-toe deformity. Radiological analysis of pes cavus in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease shows the forefoot is typically plantarflexed in relation to the rearfoot.
  • Pes calcaneocavus foot, which is seen primarily following paralysis of the triceps surae due to poliomyelitis, the calcaneus is dorsiflexed and the forefoot is plantarflexed. Radiological analysis of pes calcaneocavus reveals a large talo-calcaneal angle.
  • Pes cavus, the calcaneus is neither dorsiflexed nor in varus and is highly arched due to a plantarflexed position of the forefoot on the rearfoot.  A combination of any or all of these elements can also be seen in a ‘combined’ type of pes cavus that may be further categorized as flexible or rigid.


Also, types of Pes Cavus is based on the location of APEX of the deformity

  • Anterior Cavus (Forefoot Cavus) –Local –Global
  • Metatarsus cavus
  • Posterior Cavus
  • Combined

Causes of Claw Foot

Many types of claw foot are connected to damage to your feet. Your toes may curl to compensate and help you balance if the nerves or muscles in your feet are injured. This curl can become permanent over time. 

Other reasons you may develop claw toes include:

Injuries and surgery: Any type of foot or ankle surgery can damage the nerves in that area. Traumatic injuries to your legs, feet, and ankles can also cause muscle damage and nerve injuries.‌

Diabetes: Uncontrolled blood sugar can lead to nerve damage in your feet. People with uncontrolled diabetes may experience foot numbness along with curling toes. High insulin levels can damage their extremities.

Rheumatoid arthritis: This is an autoimmune condition that can cause your immune system to attack your joints. It can weaken your muscles and deform your toe joints over time.

Cerebral palsy: This condition leads to irregular muscle tone. People with cerebral palsy have muscles that are too loose or too stiff. This can cause claw foot as your toe muscles stiffen to compensate for loose foot muscles.

Stroke: A stroke can make it harder for you to control muscles throughout your body. This includes your feet and legs. Your toes may curl to help you balance.‌

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: This genetic disorder affects your nervous system. It makes it harder for you to control your legs and feet. One of the first signs of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is weakness in your legs and foot deformities like claw toes.


Patients complain of pain , instability , difficulty walking and problems with footwear .The symptoms vary with the degree of deformity . Also can present with lateral foot pain from increased weight bearing on the lateral foot.

  • The range of complaints reported in the literature include metatarsalgia, pain under the first metatarsal, plantar fasciitis, painful callosities, ankle arthritis, and Achilles tendonitis
  • keratosis
  • lateral Ankle instability
  • hindfoot varus
  • The forefoot plantar flexion
  • hindfoot varus
  • lower limb stress fractures
  • knee pain
  • iliotibial band friction syndrome
  • back pain
  • tripping


Plain film radiographs are the first investigation for the cavus foot. Recommended views include: 

  • Weight-bearing views of the foot and ankle
  • Calcaneal axial view (others have suggested that the Colby view may be more helpful in the evaluation of hindfoot alignment).

A standard evaluation for fractures, dislocations, and degenerative changes should begin any radiographic assessment, other specific lines, geographic measurements, and angles can help the clinician determine the relative position of the foot to its other components. Some of the more commonly used examples are listed below: 

One can determine the presence of cavus by evaluating the relative position of the inferior aspect of the medial cuneiform and the fifth metatarsal base on a lateral x-ray of the foot. When the 5th metatarsal base is closer to the floor, the foot is in cavus. 

Meary’s line (a line measured along the long axis of the talus and first metatarsal) is normally zero, but in the cavus foot, the first metatarsal is plantarflexed, increasing the angle. A mild cavus foot may have a Meary’s angle of five to ten degrees, with severe cavus feet having angles greater than twenty degrees.

A Hibb angle may also be used. This is a measurement between the longitudinal axis of the calcaneus and first metatarsal. Values in normal feet are generally less than 45 degrees. In patients in pes cavus deformities, the angle is often greater than 90 degrees.

A talocalcaneal angle on the AP radiograph will show a divergent talus and calcaneus in a normal foot with an angle of twenty to forty degrees. When the angle is decreased, this indicates that the talus and calcaneus are more parallel, and the foot is in cavus.

The Djian-Annonier angle (the angle of the medial arch) is widely used in France and is found to be less than one-hundred and twenty degrees in the cavus foot. This angle is measured from where the calcaneus rests against the ground, to the talonavicular joint at the apex and to the medial sesamoid where it contacts the ground again.

Other Imaging: 

Computed tomography (CT) scans may also be performed to allow for evaluation of the joints for arthrosis for surgical planning and a complete evaluation of the hindfoot position.

Magnetic resonance imaging has been described for the evaluation of the lateral ligamentous complex, peroneal tendon pathology, osteochondral lesions, and evaluation of fifth metatarsal base fractures.

In cases of suspected HMSNs, patients may benefit from evaluation by a neurologist for possible electromyogram and/or genetic testing.

Unilateral pes cavus without obvious explanation should prompt MRI of the brain and spinal cord.

Morton's neuroma is an agonizing condition that influences the bundle of your foot, most usually the territory between your third and fourth toes. Morton's neuroma may feel as though you are remaining on a rock in your shoe or on an overlap in your sock.

Morton's neuroma includes a thickening of the tissue around one of the nerves prompting your toes. This can cause a sharp, consuming agony in the wad of your foot. Your toes likewise may sting, consume or feel numb.

High-obeyed shoes have been connected to the improvement of Morton's neuroma. Numerous individuals experience helps by changing to bring down obeyed shoes with more extensive toe boxes. Once in a while corticosteroid injections or surgery might be fundamental.


Regularly, there's no outward indication of this condition, for example, a bump. All things considered; you may encounter the accompanying side effects:

  • Shivering or numbness in your toes
  • An inclination as though you're remaining on a rock in your shoe
  • A consuming agony in the bundle of your foot that may emanate into your toes


Morton's neuroma appears to happen in light of bothering, pressing factor or injury to one of the nerves that lead to your toes.

Dangerous Factors

Variables that seem to add to Morton's neuroma include:

  • High heels.

Wearing high-obeyed shoes or shoes that are tight or sick fitting can put additional tension on your toes and the chunk of your foot.

  • Certain games.

Taking an interest in high-sway athletic exercises, for example, running or running may expose your feet to dull injury. Sports that include tight shoes, for example, snow skiing or rock climbing, can squeeze your toes.

  • Foot distortions.

 Individuals who have bunions, hammertoes, high curves or flatfeet are at higher danger of building up Morton's neuroma

Metatarsalgia, anterior (Morton’s disease), unilateral, or bilateral

Metatarsalgia is a condition in which the ball of your foot becomes painful and inflamed. You might develop it if you participate in activities that involve running and jumping. There are other causes as well, including foot deformities and shoes that are too tight or too loose.

Although generally not serious, metatarsalgia can sideline you. Fortunately, at-home treatments, such as ice and rest, often relieve symptoms. Wearing proper footwear with shock-absorbing insoles or arch supports might prevent or minimize future problems with metatarsalgia.


Common causes include:

  • Overtraining
  • Interdigital (Morton) neuroma
  • Freiberg infraction
  • Stress fractures involving the foot
  • Intermetatarsal bursitis
  • Adventitial bursitis
  • Inflammatory and degenerative arthritis
  • Metatarsophalangeal joint synovitis/capsulitis
  • Tendinosis/tenosynovitis
  • Plantar plate disruption / plantar plate tears
  • Schwannoma
  • Pes cavus or high arched foot
  • Excessive pronation of the foot
  • Clawing or hammer toes
  • Tight extensor tendons of the toes
  • Prominent metatarsal heads

Morton’s foot, there is a shortened first metatarsal, which results in an abnormal subtalar joint, and increased weight going through the second metatarsophalangeal joint.

There can be multiple causative factors. Often localized to the first metatarsal head.Next most frequent site of metatarsal head pain is under the second metatarsal.

Factors that can cause excessive pressure are:

  • Participating in high impact activities without proper footwear and/or orthotics
  • Older age as the pad in the foot tends to thin out making it much more susceptible pressure and pain
  • An imbalance in the length of the metatarsals
  • Majority seem to be related to foot and ankle deformity
  • Disturbances in gait
  • Morphology of the foot (e.g. increased bone length that protrudes into the bottom of the foot)
  • A shortened Achilles tendon



Symptoms range from mild to severe and typically consist of:

  • Forefoot pain is worse during weight-bearing, particularly during the middle phase and push-off phase of walking.
  • Metatarsal pain usually comes on gradually
  • Pressing in on the MTP joints under the ball of the foot will be painful and tender.
  • It is usually the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th toes affected and are frequently in more than one joint at the same time.
  • In the early stages, you may see a visible separation between the two toes. This is known as the V sign.
  • Passive flexion or bending of the toe can reproduce pain.
  • There may also be hard skin or calluses under the foot due to excess pressure.


X-rays may help your doctor rule out other causes of forefoot pain. A bone scan can pinpoint places of inflammation.

Ultrasound can help identify conditions such as bursitis or Morton’s neuroma that cause pain in the metatarsal area.

The doctor may also ask for an MRI to look for causes of pain in your metatarsal and midfoot regions. These can include traumatic disorders, circulatory conditions, arthritis, neuro arthropathies, and conditions that cause biomechanical imbalance.

A Hallux valgus or most commonly known as a bunion is a hard bump that structures on the joint at the base of your big toe. It happens when a portion of the bones in the forward portion of your foot move strange. This makes the tip of your big toe get pulled toward the smaller toes and powers the joint at the base of your big toe to stand out.

Wearing tight, thin shoes may cause bunions or exacerbate them. Bunions can likewise create because of the state of your foot, a foot deformation or an ailment, for example, joint pain.

Smaller bunions (bunionettes) can create on the joint of your little toe.

Manifestations Or Symptoms

The signs and side effects of a Hallux Valgus deformity include:

  • A swelling bump outwardly of the base of your big toe
  • Growing, redness or irritation around your big toe joint
  • Corns or calluses — these regularly create where the first and second toes rub against one another
  • Progressing agony or torment that goes back and forth
  • Restricted movement of your big toe

When Do You See A Specialist?

In spite of the fact that bunions frequently require no clinical treatment but if any severe instances happen, see your nearest doctor or a specialist who has some expertise in treating foot if you have:

  • Progressing big toe or foot torment
  • A noticeable bump on your big toe joint
  • Decreased movement of your big toe or foot
  • Trouble discovering shoes that fit appropriately due to a bunion

What Causes Bunions To Occur?

There are numerous speculations about how bunions grow, yet the specific reason is obscure. Factors probably include:

  • Acquired foot type
  • Foot stress or wounds
  • Deformities present upon birth

Specialists differ on whether tight, high-behaved or too-slender shoes cause bunions or whether footwear basically adds to the improvement of bunions.


Bunions may be related with specific kinds of joint pain, especially incendiary sorts, for example, rheumatoid joint pain.

Hallux valgus, unilateral:

Bunions are a common foot condition in which a bony lump develops at the main joint between the big toe and the foot. The bunion forms when the big toe angles outwards towards the smaller toes, pulling the joint out of line.

Bunions usually develop slowly, and many people have them for years with no problems at all. However, some people find:

  • the bunion can push their toes and feet out of shape
  • the skin covering the bunion can get red and inflamed or callused
  • the bunion can make wearing shoes and walking difficult and painful

Some people get a smaller bunion, known as a bunionette, in the joint of the smallest toe.  


Bunions on the big toe are the most common. Other types include:

  • Congenital hallux valgus: Some babies are born with bunions.
  • Juvenile or adolescent hallux valgus: Tweens and teens between the ages of 10 and 15 may develop bunions.
  • Tailor’s bunion: Also called a bunionette, this bunion forms on the outside base of the little (pinky) toe.


There are many theories about how bunions develop, but the exact cause is unknown. Factors likely include:

  • Inherited foot type
  • Foot stress or injuries
  • Deformities present at birth

Experts disagree on whether tight, high-heeled or too-narrow shoes cause bunions or whether footwear simply contributes to the development of bunions.

Bunions might be associated with certain types of arthritis, particularly inflammatory types, such as rheumatoid arthritis.


In addition to the bump, signs and symptoms of a bunion may include:

  • red and inflamed skin on the side of your big toe
  • your big toe turning toward your other toes
  • thick skin on the underside of your big toe
  • calluses on your second toe
  • foot pain that may be persistent or come and go
  • difficulty moving your big toe

The pain associated with a bunion might make it difficult to walk. See your doctor if you experience:

  • persistent foot pain
  • inability to find shoes that fit you comfortably
  • decreased flexibility in your big toe
  • a large lump on or near the joint on your big toe


Your doctor probably can tell you have a bunion just by looking at your foot, but they’ll want to do an X-ray to see if the joint is damaged. That also can tell them how serious it is and possibly what caused it, which can help them decide how to treat it.

What Is Hallux Rigidus?

Hallux rigidus is most commonly known stiff big toe, which is the crucial result of this condition. It's such a degenerative joint irritation that impacts the joint where your big toe (hallux) attaches to your foot. This condition happens when the cartilage covering the terminations of the bones in your big toe joint is hurt or lost. This makes the joint space limited. It can in like manner brief painful bone pushes. These are small, pointed advancements on a bone.

Anyone can be influenced to hallux rigidus, anyway it will by and large impact people between the ages of 30 – 60 years.

What Are The Manifestations Of Hallux Rigidus?

Indications regularly begin mellow and gradually deteriorate over the long run.

Early Signs And Indications May Include:

  • pain and stiffness in your big toe during use
  • growing and aggravation around the joint
  • pain and stiffness that deteriorates with chilly, soggy climate

As The Condition Worsens, You May Take Note:

  • pain in any event, during rest
  • a hard bump that structures at the highest point of your foot
  • powerlessness to twist your big toe
  • limping

You may likewise encounter pain in your knee, hips, or lower back if your manifestations cause you to limp or walk uniquely in contrast to you typically do.

How Is Hallux Rigidus Diagnosed?

In the event that you have indications of hallux rigidus, your physician will begin by looking at your foot. They may move your big toe around a piece to preclude some other possible reasons for your manifestations.

In view of what they see during the test, your physician may arrange an X-ray of your foot or toe. This will permit them to perceive any harm to the joint in your big toe.



Note: This condition is rated as hallux valgus, severe

What Is A Hammer Toe?

A hammer toe is a deformity that makes your toe twist or twist descending as opposed to pointing forward. This deformity can influence any toe on your foot. It frequently influences the second or third toe. Albeit a hammer toe might be available upon entering the world, it for the most part creates after some time because of arthritis or wearing sick fitting shoes, for example, close, pointed heels. Much of the time, a hammer toe condition is treatable.

What Causes A Hammer Toe To Occur?

Your toe contains two joints that permit it to twist at the center and base. A hammer toe happens when the center joint gets flexed or bowed descending.

Normal reasons for this include:

  • a traumatic toe injury
  • arthritis
  • a surprisingly high foot curve
  • wearing shoes that don't fit appropriately
  • fixed tendons or ligaments in the foot
  • pressure from a bunion, which is the point at which your large toe directs internal to your subsequent toe
  • Spinal cord or fringe nerve harm may make the entirety of your toes twist descending.

Mild And Severe Symptoms Of Hammer Toe

A hammer toe causes you uneasiness when you walk. It can likewise cause you pain when you attempt to stretch or move the influenced toe or those around it. Hammer toe indications might be mellow or serious.

Gentle Manifestations

  • a toe that twists descending
  • trouble strolling
  • powerlessness to flex your foot or squirm your toes
  • paw like toes

Serious Side Effects

See a specialist immediately on the off chance that you have built up any of these side effects and they cause any severe uneasiness for you.


You can address a hammer toe brought about by unseemly footwear by wearing appropriately fitting shoes.

Serious Hammer Toe Treatment

Surgery can reposition the toe, eliminate distorted or harmed bone, and realign your ligaments and joints. Surgery is typically done on an outpatient premise, so you can return home upon the arrival of your surgery.

Hammer toe

A hammertoe happens when the muscles and ligaments around your toe joint get out of balance. This makes the middle joint of your toe buckle and get stuck in this position. You’re most likely to see a hammertoe in your middle three toes. Toes that curl are also hammertoes. This happens most often with baby toes.


Hammertoe and mallet toe have been linked to:

  • Certain shoes: High-heeled shoes or footwear that's too tight in the toe box can crowd your toes into a space in which they can't lie flat. This curled toe position might eventually persist even when you're barefoot.
  • Trauma: An injury in which you stub, jam or break a toe can make it more likely for that digit to develop hammertoe or mallet toe.
  • Abnormal balance of the toe muscles: The imbalance leads to instability, which can cause the toe to contract.

Signs and symptoms

A hammer toe causes you discomfort when you walk. It can also cause you pain when you try to stretch or move the affected toe or those around it. Hammer toe symptoms may be mild or severe.

  • a toe that bends downward
  • corns or calluses
  • difficulty walking
  • inability to flex your foot or wiggle your toes
  • claw-like toes 


Physical Examination

Your doctor will perform a physical examination to determine if the toe joint is flexible or rigid. This information will help him or her determine the appropriate treatment.


X-rays: X-rays provide images of dense structures, such as bone. Your doctor may order an x-ray of your foot to confirm the diagnosis.

Other tests: Patients who have diabetes or decreased sensation in their feet may require further testing to determine whether a neurological condition is the cause of the tendon imbalance.

What Is The Process Of Malunion?

"Malunion" is a clinical term used to show that a fracture has recuperated, however that it has mended in under an optimal position. This can occur in practically any bone after fracture and happens for a few reasons. Malunion may bring about a bone being more limited than typical, contorted or pivoted in a terrible position, or twisted. Commonly these deformities are available in a similar malunion.

Malunions can likewise happen in regions where a fracture has uprooted the outside of the joint. At the point when this occurs, the cartilage in the joint is not, at this point smooth. This may cause pain, joint degeneration, tremendous joint inflammation because of flimsiness or incongruency of the joint.

What Are The Side Effects Of This Clinical Procedure?

  • Expanding (Swelling) of joints
  • Pain in certain bones or joints
  • Delicacy
  • Disfigurement of posture
  • Trouble bearing weight

What Are The Treatment Choices?

In practically all circumstances, treatment includes cutting the bone, at or close to the site of the first fracture. The cut or "osteotomy" is done to address the mal-arrangement. Also, some safe technique for obsession should be utilized to stand firm on the bones in the ideal situation. This obsession may require plates, poles, or an outside casing with pins.

Malunions that incorporate shortening of the bone regularly require some strategy for bone extending.

Malunion Of The Tarsal Joint

Malunion of tarsal or metatarsal osteotomy or fracture can bring about dorsal angulation of the distal section and shortening of the metatarsal, among different deformities. Dorsal malunion can be brought about by ill-advised direction of the osteotomy, poor intraoperative obsession, or loss of obsession present operatively due on untimely weight bearing or cataclysmic disappointment. Nonetheless, treatment alternatives would be comparative with respect to malunion following an osteotomy. The treatment of malunions relies upon how indicative the patient is, including pain, trouble with ambulation, and whether they whine of move metatarsalgia.


Description Percentage


Description Percentage

Moderately severe

Description Percentage



Note: With actual loss of use of the foot, rate 40 percent.


Excessively close or high-heeled shoes, among different causes, can pack the nerves between your toes. Frequently, this happens between your third and fourth toes, a condition called Morton's neuroma. The pain, shivering, and deadness of a neuroma can frequently be alleviated with cushioning, icing, orthotics, and wearing shoes with a wide toe box and low heels.

Stress Fracture

Among the more serious wounds, stress fractures frequently happen when you exaggerate a high-sway movement like running, dance or ball. Exhausted muscles move stress deep down. A small, hairline break structures, causing conceivably extreme pain.

 Heel Spurs

Heel spurs happen when calcium stores develop on the lower part of your heel bone. Calf and foot extend function admirably to mitigate it; once in a while is a medical procedure to eliminate the prod important.


This bump of bone and tissue at the base of your big toe structures when the joint interfacing it to your foot moves strange. Restricted toed and high-heeled shoes cause most cases; however, heredity assumes a small part. Left untreated, bunions can cause pain so extreme it restricts your capacity to walk.


Your sesamoids—two pea-formed bones stopped in the ligament underneath the chunk of your foot—help the big toe move typically. Cushioning, lashing, or taping the foot can diminish tension on the sesamoids, while mitigating drugs decrease pain and growing.

 Achilles Tendinitis

The extensive Achilles ligament can develop thick, aroused, swollen or painful when requested to do excessively, too early (for instance, in the wake of starting a goal-oriented exercise program). Tight lower leg muscles may likewise assume a part.

 Lower Leg Sprains

Many individuals fall, step or wind their way into a lower leg sprain every day. This normal injury happens when the tendons on the external side of your lower leg stretch or tear, causing pain, growing, and some of the time a powerlessness to bear weight. For gentle injuries, rest, ice, compression and elevation—the RICE convention—typically gets the job done.

Description Percentage


Description Percentage

Moderately severe

Description Percentage



 Note: With actual loss of use of the foot, rate 40 percent.

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