The phrase 'chronic pyelonephritis' (CP) is not really one diagnosis. It is meant to mean the long-term damage done by recurrent urine infection to the drainage system of the kidney. But it has come to be a 'fallback diagnosis', i.e. when doctors are not sure of the cause of kidney failure, and the kidney has scars on its surface, they call it CP.
The urinary tract consists of the kidneys, a pair of ureters that lead to the urinary bladder, and the urethra that leads urine to the urinary outlet. Any obstruction in this tract can cause stagnation and retrograde of urine which is toxic for the body tissues.
Sometimes, the cause of CP is unclear, but the two main mechanisms of CP development are:
CP is asymptomatic in its early stages. The usual symptoms are similar to that of kidney infection or chronic kidney disease, like:
Children with CP may report these symptoms, too:
Blood creatinine may be raised if it has led to chronic kidney disease. Urine tests may show infection and low to moderate levels of protein. Other tests include;
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