Nephrolithiasis or Kidney stones are strong and hard masses. Kidney stones mostly start in your kidneys

Diet, overabundance body weight, some ailments, and certain enhancements and meds are among the numerous reasons for kidney stones. Kidney stones can influence any piece of your urinary tract — from your kidneys to your bladder.

Passing kidney stones can be very difficult, however the stones typically cause no lasting harm in the event that they're perceived at initial stage. Contingent upon your circumstance, you may require just to take torment medicine and drink heaps of water to pass a kidney stone. In different occasions — for instance, if stones become stopped in the urinary tract, are related with a urinary infection or cause entanglements — medical procedure might be required.

Your doctor may prescribe preventive treatment to lessen your danger of intermittent kidney stones in case you're at expanded danger of creating them once more.


A kidney stone as a rule won't cause manifestations until it moves around inside your kidney or passes into your ureters — the cylinders associating the kidneys and the bladder. On the off chance that it gets stopped in the ureters, it might obstruct the progression of pee and cause the kidney to expand and the ureter to fit, which can be extremely excruciating. By then, you may encounter these signs and indications:

  • Extreme, sharp torment in the side and back, beneath the ribs
  • Torment that emanates to the lower abdomen and crotch
  • Torment that comes in waves and varies in force
  • A constant need to pee, peeing more regularly than expected
  • Queasiness and retching
  • Fever and chills if an infection has occurred

When To See A Specialist

Look for guaranteed clinical consideration if you experience:

  • Torment joined by sickness and regurgitating
  • Agony joined by fever and chills
  • Blood in your pee
  • Trouble passing pee


Nephrolithiasis, also known as kidney stones or renal calculi, is a condition where hard deposits made of minerals and salts form inside the kidneys. These stones can affect any part of the urinary tract, from the kidneys to the bladder. 


Kidney stones are common. Some types run in families. They often occur in premature infants. There are different types of kidney stones. The cause of the problem depends on the type of stone.

  • Stones can form when urine contains too much of certain substances that form crystals. These crystals can develop into stones over weeks or months.
  • Calcium stones are most common. They are most likely to occur in men between ages 20 to 30. Calcium can combine with other substances to form the stone.
  • Oxalate is the most common of these. Oxalate is present in certain foods such as spinach. It is also found in vitamin C supplements. Diseases of the small intestine increase your risk for these stones.
  • Calcium stones can also form from combining with phosphate or carbonate.

Other types of stones include:

  • Cystine stones can form in people who have cystinuria. This disorder runs in families. It affects both men and women.
  • Struvite stones are mostly found in men or women who have repeated urinary tract infections. These stones can grow very large and can block the kidney, ureter, or bladder.
  • Uric acid stones are more common in men than in women. They can occur with gout or chemotherapy.
  • Other substances, such as certain medicines, also can form stones.

The biggest risk factor for kidney stones is not drinking enough fluids. Kidney stones are more likely to occur if you make less than 1 liter (32 ounces) of urine a day.


A kidney stone usually will not cause symptoms until it moves around within the kidney or passes into one of the ureters. The ureters are the tubes that connect the kidneys and bladder.

If a kidney stone becomes lodged in the ureter, it may block the flow of urine and cause the kidney to swell and the ureter to spasm, which can be very painful. At that point, you may experience these symptoms:

  • Severe, sharp pain in the side and back, below the ribs
  • Pain that radiates to the lower abdomen and groin
  • Pain that comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity
  • Pain or burning sensation while urinating
  • Other signs and symptoms may include:
  • Pink, red or brown urine
  • Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
  • A persistent need to urinate, urinating more often than usual or urinating in small amounts
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fever and chills if an infection is present

Pain caused by a kidney stone may change for instance, shifting to a different location or increasing in intensity as the stone moves through your urinary tract.


The healthcare provider will perform a physical exam. The belly area (abdomen) or back might feel sore.

Tests that may be done include:

  • Blood tests to check calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, and electrolyte levels
  • Kidney function tests
  • Urinalysis to see crystals and look for red blood cells in urine
  • Examination of the stone to determine the type

Stones or a blockage can be seen on:

  • Abdominal CT scan  
  • Abdominal x-rays
  • Kidney ultrasound
  • Retrograde pyelogram

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