Tuberculous laryngitis is a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) that affects the larynx, which is the voice box. It is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria and can present as either an active or inactive infection.
Tuberculous laryngitis is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, which is the same bacteria responsible for pulmonary tuberculosis. The infection is usually acquired through inhalation of respiratory droplets containing the bacteria. Factors that can increase the risk of developing tuberculous laryngitis include:
The symptoms of tuberculous laryngitis can vary depending on whether the infection is active or inactive. Common symptoms include:
Active Tuberculous Laryngitis:
Inactive Tuberculous Laryngitis:
Diagnosing tuberculous laryngitis involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. The following methods may be used:
The doctor will inquire about symptoms, medical history, and potential exposure to tuberculosis. They will also examine the throat and larynx for any visible signs of infection or scarring.
Imaging tests such as computed tomography (CT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be performed to evaluate the extent of the infection and assess any structural changes in the larynx.
This procedure involves the use of a flexible or rigid scope to visualize the larynx and collect tissue samples for further analysis. Laryngoscopy can help identify characteristic signs of tuberculous laryngitis, such as ulcerations, granulomas, or scarring.
A tissue sample may be taken from the affected area during laryngoscopy to confirm the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rule out other possible causes.
This test involves injecting a small amount of purified protein derivative (PPD) from the tuberculosis bacteria under the skin. A positive reaction indicates exposure to tuberculosis but does not confirm laryngeal involvement.
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