Colitis, ulcerative:

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a bowel disease. It causes disturbance, inflammation, and ulcers in the covering of your large digestive system (additionally called your colon). There's no fix, and individuals ordinarily have symptoms now and again forever. Be that as it may, the correct medicines can help you keep an idea about the disease.

Ulcerative Colitis Causes And Risk Factors

Ulcerative colitis happens when your immune system commits an error. Regularly, it assaults trespassers in your body, similar to the normal virus. In any case, when you have UC, your invulnerable framework thinks food, great gut microorganisms, and the cells that line your colon are the interlopers. White platelets that normally secure you assault the covering of your colon all things being equal. They cause inflammation and ulcers.

Specialists aren't sure why individuals get the condition. Your hereditary or genetic line may assume a part; the disease here and there runs in families. Different things in your general surroundings may have an effect, as well.

Things that can influence your danger of getting ulcerative colitis include:

  • Age

It's most probable in case you're somewhere in the range of 15 and 30 years of age or more established than 60.

  • Family ancestry

Your danger could be up to 30% higher on the off chance that you have a nearby relative with the condition.

Food and stress don't cause it, yet they can trigger a flare of symptoms.

Ulcerative Colitis Symptoms

The principle indication of ulcerative colitis is bleeding looseness of the bowels. There may be a few discharges in your stools, as well.

Different Issues Include:

  • Squeezing tummy pain
  • Abrupt desires to crap
  • Not inclination hungry
  • Weight reduction
  • Feeling tired
  • Fever
  • Lack of hydration
  • Joint pain or touchiness
  • Infection
  • Skin bruises
  • Not having the control to hold your stool in
  • Pain or bleeding with large intestines

Your symptoms can erupt, disappear, and return. You probably won't have any for quite a long time or years.

Colitis, ulcerative: 

Ulcerative colitis (UC) causes irritation and ulcers (open sores) in your large intestine. It belongs to a group of conditions called inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It often causes diarrhea with blood, cramping and urgency. Sometimes, these symptoms can wake you up at night to go to the bathroom.

The inflammation in ulcerative colitis usually starts in your rectum, which is close to your anus (where poop leaves your body). The inflammation can spread and affect a portion of your entire colon. When the inflammation occurs in your rectum and lower part of your colon, it’s called ulcerative proctitis. If your entire large intestine is affected, it’s called pancolitis. If only the left side of your colon is affected, it’s called limited or distal colitis.

The severity of UC depends on the amount of inflammation and the location. Everyone is a little different. You could have severe inflammation in your rectum (small area) or very mild inflammation in your entire colon (large area).

Types of ulcerative colitis

UC can be categorized according to the parts of the GI tract that it affects.

  • Ulcerative proctitis: In ulcerative proctitis, only the rectum is inflamed. It’s considered a mild form of UC.
  • Left-sided colitis: Left-sided colitis causes inflammation in the area between the splenic flexure (near the upper part of the colon, where it bends) and the last section of the colon. The last section of the colon, known as the distal colon, includes the descending colon and sigmoid colon. Left-sided colitis is also known as distal ulcerative colitis.
  • Proctosigmoiditis: Proctosigmoiditis is a form of left-sided colitis. It causes inflammation in the rectum and sigmoid colon.
  • Extensive colitis: Extensive colitis, also known as pancolitis, causes inflammation throughout the entire colon. It’s considered a severe form of UC.


Researchers believe that UC may be the result of an overactive immune system. However, it’s unclear why some immune systems respond by attacking the large intestines, and others don’t.

Factors that may play a role in who develops UC include:

  • Genes: You may inherit a gene from a parent that increases your chance of having UC.
  • Other immune disorders: If you have one type of immune disorder, your chance of developing a second is higher.
  • Environmental factors: Bacteria, viruses, and antigens may trigger your immune system.


The main symptoms of ulcerative colitis are:

  • recurring diarrhoea, which may contain blood, mucus or pus
  • tummy pain
  • needing to poo frequently
  • You may also experience extreme tiredness (fatigue), loss of appetite and weight loss.

The severity of the symptoms varies, depending on how much of the rectum and colon is inflamed and how severe the inflammation is. For some people, the condition has a significant impact on their everyday lives.

Symptoms of a flare-up

Some people may go for weeks or months with very mild symptoms, or none at all (remission), followed by periods where the symptoms are particularly troublesome (flare-ups or relapses).

During a flare-up, some people with ulcerative colitis also experience symptoms elsewhere in their body; which are known as extra-intestinal symptoms.

These can include:

  • painful and swollen joints (arthritis)
  • mouth ulcers
  • swollen fat under the skin causing bumps and patches – this is known as erythema nodosum
  • irritated and red eyes
  • problems with bones, such as osteoporosis
  • In many people, no specific trigger for flare-ups is identified, although a gut infection can occasionally be the cause.
  • Stress is also thought to be a potential factor.


Endoscopic procedures with tissue biopsy are the only way to definitively diagnose ulcerative colitis. Other types of tests can help rule out complications or other forms of inflammatory bowel disease, such as Crohn's disease.

To help confirm a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis, you may have one or more of the following tests and procedures:

Lab tests

  • Blood tests: Your provider may suggest blood tests to check for anemia — a condition in which there aren't enough red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to your tissues — or to check for signs of infection or inflammation.
  • Stool studies: White blood cells or certain proteins in your stool can indicate ulcerative colitis. A stool sample also can help rule out other disorders, such as infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and parasites.


Endoscopic procedures

  • Colonoscopy: This exam allows your provider to view your entire colon using a thin, flexible, lighted tube with a camera on the end. During the procedure, tissue samples are taken for laboratory analysis. This is known as a tissue biopsy. A tissue sample is necessary to make the diagnosis.
  • Flexible sigmoidoscopy: Your provider uses a slender, flexible, lighted tube to examine the rectum and sigmoid colon — the lower end of your colon. If your colon is severely inflamed, this test may be preferred instead of a full colonoscopy.


Imaging procedures

  • X-ray: If you have severe symptoms, your provider may use a standard X-ray of your abdominal area to rule out serious complications, such as a megacolon or a perforated colon.
  • CT scan: A CT scan of your abdomen or pelvis may be performed if a complication from ulcerative colitis is suspected. A CT scan may also reveal how much of the colon is inflamed.
  • Computerized tomography (CT) enterography and magnetic resonance (MR) enterography: These types of noninvasive tests may be recommended to exclude any inflammation in the small intestine. These tests are more sensitive for finding inflammation in the bowel than are conventional imaging tests. MR enterography is a radiation-free alternative.

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